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In order to assess the condition of heavy metal pollution in the Yellow River, Lanzhou section, China, and to quantify heavy metal (copper, lead, zinc, and cadmium) contents in tissues (liver, kidney, gills, and muscles) of two fish species (Triplophysa pappenheimi and Gobio hwanghensis), levels of these four metals in the water body, sediment, and tissues of the two fish were measured using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The metal levels from this study were compared with the threshold values in the guidelines of water, sediment, and food given by the National Environmental Protection Agency of China, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of America, and the National Standards Management Department of China. We found the mean concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd in THE water body, sediment, and muscles of two fish species were far below the values in guidelines. We also found that the type of metals present and their concentrations varied in different tissues and species. The results suggested that (1) Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd did not contaminate the aquatic ecosystem severely and did not threaten the safety of human consumption in the Yellow River, Lanzhou section, and (2) organs that are sensitive to accumulating heavy metals may be useful to develop bioindicators for monitoring metal contamination. Considering environmental variables, further study is necessary before deciding which fish species or tissue could be the ideal bioindicators for aquatic pollution.  相似文献
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基于SWAT模型的圩区农业非点源污染模拟   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
以荻泽联圩为研究对象,应用SWAT模型模拟太湖流域典型圩区农业非点源产污规律,建立了研究区域的非点源污染基础信息库,实现了流域的空间参数化过程;将参数化过程中提取的模型参数纳入到数据库中统一管理,按照模型要求建立了数据库字段和参数内容的对应表,解决了模型运行时众多离散单元的自动赋值问题;采用虚拟水库控制技术,解决了SWAT模型在控制出流的圩区中的应用弊端。  相似文献
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阐述了GB 50325-2001《民用建筑工程室内环境污染控制规范》中存在的问题,指出该规范仅对建筑材料放射性的测量不确定度D(当K=1时,D≤20%)提出了要求,未对测量时间、仪器测量下限和放射性物质特征峰漂移提出要求.实验证明,这些存在的问题对建筑材料放射性测量数据的准确性有影响.  相似文献
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Long-distance pipeline construction results in marked human disturbance of the regional ecosystem and brings into question the safety of pipeline construction with respect to the environment. Thus, the direct environmental impact and proper handling of such large projects have received much attention. The potential environmental effects, however, have not been fully addressed, particularly for large linear pipeline projects, and the threshold of such effects is unclear. In this study, two typical eco-fragile areas in western China, where large linear construction projects have been conducted, were chosen as the case study areas. Soil quality indices (SQI) and vegetation indices (VI), representing the most important potential effects, were used to analyze the scope of the effect of large pipeline construction on the surrounding environment. These two indices in different buffer zones along the pipeline were compared against the background values. The analysis resulted in three main findings. First, pipeline construction continues to influence the nearby eco-environment even after a 4-year recovery period. During this period, the effect on vegetation due to pipeline construction reaches 300 m beyond the working area, and is much larger in distance than the effect on soil, which is mainly confined to within 30 m either side of the pipeline, indicating that vegetation is more sensitive than soil to this type of human disturbance. However, the effect may not reach beyond 500 m from the pipeline. Second, the scope of the effect in terms of distance on vegetation may also be determined by the frequency of disturbance and the intensity of the pipeline construction. The greater the number of pipelines in an area, the higher the construction intensity and the more frequent the disturbance. Frequent disturbance may expand the effect on vegetation on both sides of the pipeline, but not on soil quality. Third, the construction may eliminate the stable, resident plant community. During the recovery period, the plant community in the work area of the pipeline is replaced by some species that are rare or uncommon in the resident plant community because of human disturbance, thereby increasing the plant diversity in the work area. In terms of plant succession, the duration of the recovery period has a direct effect on the composition and structure of the plant community. The findings provide a theoretical basis and scientific foundation for improving the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of oil and gas pipeline construction as it pertains to the desert steppe ecosystem, and provide a reference point for recovery and management of the eco-environment during the pipeline construction period.  相似文献
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项目建设前的环境质量(包括水环境质量)是环境影响评价的基础,预测项目建设后的环境质量是环境可行性评价结论的依据,环境质量的表征数据是通过环境监测工作取得,环境监测的规范性要求,开展监测要得到的数据必须具备“五性”,才能表征某一监测地区的环境质量.由于环境评价的中介服务性,以及时间与经费的关系,对环境监测点位、频次进行压缩与省略,使得监测数据无法保障其代表性,影响建设项目环境影响报告书得出可信的结论.如何保障监测数据的质量,以最少的监测点、最恰当的监测时期、最少的监测频次,取得最有代表性的数据表征建设项目周围的环境质量,从而确保评价依靠的环境质量基础可靠,评价结论可信,是一个值得探讨的问题.  相似文献
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