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1.
城市环境铅污染及其对人体健康的影响   总被引:18,自引:5,他引:13       下载免费PDF全文
综述了城市土壤和大气环境中铅的污染特征及食品和饮水中的铅污染水平,探讨了人体铅暴露的途径及城市环境铅污染对儿童健康的危害.提出应加强城市环境铅污染的调查研究,开展人体铅暴露的潜在风险评价,为保证城市居民健康安全提供科学依据.  相似文献
2.
我国流域水生态完整性评价方法构建   总被引:9,自引:8,他引:1  
流域水生态完整性评价是指通过对水生态系统中不同水生态指标(生物和非生物)的监测以及由数学方法综合形成的综合评价指数,来反映水生态系统完整性状况。近年来,世界各国水环境管理政策发生了变化,开始强调生态保护,重视水体的生态质量。中国现行的常规理化监测指标(如COD、氨氮、BOD5)很难满足水环境管理的需求,难以全面准确地反映水环境质量变化的趋势。因此,在借鉴欧美发达国家流域水生态完整性评价方法的基础上,结合中国目前监测现状以及流域水环境管理需求,构建了包括物理生境指标、理化指标、水生生物指标在内的流域水生态完整性监测与评价方法,以期为中国流域水质目标管理技术体系的业务化运行提供可资借鉴的技术支撑,实现从单一的化学指标监测转向综合的水生态系统监测,实现流域水生态完整性的监测与评价。  相似文献
3.
Aquatic organisms’ tolerance to water pollution is widely used to monitor and assess freshwater ecosystem health. Tolerance values (TVs) estimated based on statistical analyses of species-environment relationships are more objective than those assigned by expert opinion. Region-specific TVs are the basis for developing accurate bioassessment metrics particularly in developing countries, where both aquatic biota and their responses to human disturbances have been poorly documented. We used principal component analysis to derive a synthetic gradient for four stressor variables (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, and % silt) based on 286 sampling sites in the Taihu Lake and Qiantang River basins (Yangtze River Delta), China. We used the scores of taxa on the first principal component (PC1), which explained 49.8 % of the variance, to estimate the tolerance values (TVr) of 163 macroinvertebrates taxa that were collected from at least 20 sites, 81 of which were not included in the Hilsenhoff TV lists (TVh) of 1987. All estimates were scaled into the range of 1–10 as in TVh. Of all the taxa with different TVs, 46.3 % of TVr were lower and 52.4 % were higher than TVh. TVr were significantly (p?<?0.01, Fig. 2), but weakly (r 2?=?0.34), correlated with TVh. Seven biotic metrics based on TVr were more strongly correlated with the main stressors and were more effective at discriminating references sites from impacted sites than those based on TVh. Our results highlight the importance of developing region-specific TVs for macroinvertebrate-based bioassessment and to facilitate assessment of streams in China, particularly in the Yangtze River Delta.  相似文献
4.
连云港主要河流大型底栖无脊椎动物水质生物评价   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
于2008年5月采用D形网半定量采样法调查了连云港市5条河流7个点位的大型底栖无脊椎动物群落多样性,共获得67个大型底栖无脊椎动物分类单元;其中,昆虫纲双翅目18属、蜻蜓目11属;软体动物24种;环节动物4科4属5种。应用典范对应分析(CCA)排序结果将7个样点分成高TN低DO、高电导率和低TN以及高DO和低电导率3组。Shannon—Wiener多样性指数、生物指数和COD水质评价结果表明,多样性指数与生物指数和COD评价结果有较大差异,生物指数和COD评价结果较相似。综合评价结果为青口河的水质属于清洁;蔷薇河、淮沐新河、鲁兰河和新沭河属于轻污至中污。生物指数与TN极显著正相关(r=0.913,P=0.004),多样性指数与TN无相关性(r=0.257,P=0,578)。  相似文献
5.
不同提取剂提取酸性土壤有效态Cu和Cd的方法研究   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
选择HCl(1#)、HOAc(2#)、NaNO3(3#)和CaCl2(4#)、NH4OAc(5#)、NaOAc(6#)6种不同的提取剂提取某冶炼厂周边重金属污染水稻田土壤中有效态Cu和Cd。结果表明,对土壤有效态Cu,各提取剂按提取量排序为:1#〉2#〉5#〉4#〉3#〉6#,对土壤有效态Cd,各提取剂按提取量排序为:1#〉5#〉2#≈4#〉6#〉3#,有效态Cu的提取量因提取剂种类不同差异较Cd大;4#、5#两种提取剂对土壤有效态Cu和Cd的提取结果变异范围较集中,实验结果相对较稳定;各提取剂提取土壤有效态Cu和Cd的量与其在土壤中全量都显著相关,仅5撑提取剂的提取量与水稻籽粒中Cu、Cd的质量比显著相关。综合实验结果的稳定性与土壤重金属有效态的实际意义,NH4OAc(5#)为最适合提取该研究土壤中有效态Cu和Cd的提取剂。  相似文献
6.
2009年4月用D形网半定量采样法调查秦淮河上游25个点位的大型底栖无脊椎动物群落多样性,共获得63个大型底栖无脊椎动物分类单元;其中,水生昆虫5目12科30属,软体动物9科11属19种,寡毛纲2科7属9种。结果表明,生物指数(Biotic Index,BI)比Shannon-Wiener多样性指数的评价结果更接近实际情况,BI与ρ(TN)(r=0.44,p〈0.05)和ρ(NH3-N)(r=0.40,p〈0.05)之间显著相关,Shannon-Wiene多样性指数与ρ(TN)(r=-0.19,p〉0.05)和ρ(NH3-N)(r=0.44,p〉0.05)无显著性相关。生物评价表明秦淮河上游水质受到严重污染,句容地区的水质要优于南京。  相似文献
7.
苏南地区农村河塘底泥中重金属污染调查与评价   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
对苏南地区农村河塘底泥中重金属的污染物状况及分布特征进行了调查,分别在镇江、宜兴和常州采集了农村居民生活区、农田附近和养殖厂周围13个底泥样品,对底泥中的5种重金属Zn、Cu、Cd、Pb、Cr质量比进行了分析研究,并利用Hakason生态风险指数法评价了底泥中5种重金属对其所在水域的污染程度,对水域和周围环境造成的潜在风险影响.结果表明,苏南地区部分农村河塘底泥已受到轻度的重金属污染,部分采样点Cd、Cu和Zn已达到中度污染;不同类型底泥的重金属的污染程度趋势为:居民生活区>养殖厂周围>农田附近.  相似文献
8.
A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared using chlorsulfuron (CS), a herbicide as a template molecule, methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as a cross-linker, methanol and toluene as a porogen, and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator. The binding behaviors of the template chlorsulfuron and its analog on MIP were evaluated by equilibrium adsorption experiments, which showed that the MIP particles had specific affinity for the template CS. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) with the chlorsulfuron molecularly imprinted polymer as an adsorbent was investigated. The optimum loading, washing, and eluting conditions for chlorsulfuron molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction (CS-MISPE) were established. The optimized CS-MISPE procedure was developed to enrich and clean up the chlorsulfuron residue in water, soils, and wheat plants. Concentrations of chlorsulfuron in the samples were analyzed by HPLC-UVD. The average recoveries of CS spiked standard at 0.05~0.2 mg L(-1) in water were 90.2~93.3%, with the relative standard deviation (RSD) being 2.0~3.9% (n=3). The average recoveries of 1.0 mL CS spiked standard at 0.1~0.5 mg L(-1) in 10 g soil were 91.1~94.7%, with the RSD being 3.1~5.6% (n=3). The average recoveries of 1.0 mL CS spiked standard at 0.1~0.5 mg L(-1) in 5 g wheat plant were 82.3~94.3%, with the RSD being 2.9~6.8% (n=3). Overall, our study provides a sensitive and cost-effective method for accurate determination of CS residues in water, soils, and plants.  相似文献
9.
Enteric methane (CH4) emission in ruminants, which is produced via fermentation of feeds in the rumen and lower digestive tract by methanogenic archaea, represents a loss of 2% to 12% of gross energy of feeds and contributes to global greenhouse effects. Globally, about 80 million tonnes of CH4 is produced annually from enteric fermentation mainly from ruminants. Therefore, CH4 mitigation strategies in ruminants have focused to obtain economic as well as environmental benefits. Some mitigation options such as chemical inhibitors, defaunation, and ionophores inhibit methanogenesis directly or indirectly in the rumen, but they have not confirmed consistent effects for practical use. A variety of nutritional amendments such as increasing the amount of grains, inclusion of some leguminous forages containing condensed tannins and ionophore compounds in diets, supplementation of low-quality roughages with protein and readily fermentable carbohydrates, and addition of fats show promise for CH4 mitigation. These nutritional amendments also increase the efficiency of feed utilization and, therefore, are most likely to be adopted by farmers. Several new potential technologies such as use of plant secondary metabolites, probiotics and propionate enhancers, stimulation of acetogens, immunization, CH4 oxidation by methylotrophs, and genetic selection of low CH4-producing animals have emerged to decrease CH4 production, but these require extensive research before they can be recommended to livestock producers. The use of bacteriocins, bacteriophages, and development of recombinant vaccines targeting archaeal-specific genes and cell surface proteins may be areas worthy of investigation for CH4 mitigation as well. A combination of different CH4 mitigation strategies should be adopted in farm levels to substantially decrease methane emission from ruminants. Evidently, comprehensive research is needed to explore proven and reliable CH4 mitigation technologies that would be practically feasible and economically viable while improving ruminant production.  相似文献
10.
采用高效液相色谱-二极管阵列检测器对6种PAEs类物质进行测定,并对梯度洗脱条件、流速、检测波长等影响化合物色谱响应的关键参数进行优化。综合考虑样品测试效率、分析精度、实际样品中存在杂质干扰等因素,确定以乙腈-水为流动相进行梯度洗脱,洗脱0~11 min流动相乙腈-水梯度比例为50:50,11 min后流动相调整为100%乙腈,各化合物均能完全分离;色谱分析流速为0.8 mL/min;PAEs的最佳吸收波长为225 nm。在优化的色谱条件下,6种PAEs的线性良好,相关系数均大于0.9998,仪器检出限为0.08~0.12 mg/L,保留时间、峰面积的相对标准偏差分别为0.02%~0.60%、0.13%~0.86%。方法灵敏度较高,适合土壤等邻苯二甲酸酯含量较高基质样品的快速分析。  相似文献
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