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淮河流域河南段水生植物多样性评价及其影响因素分析   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
通过对淮河流域河南段开展野外调查及室内监测,分析河流水生植物类群组成及优势物种,从多样性、丰富度、优势度、均匀度4个方面对水生植物进行健康评价,采用CCA分析法探讨影响水生植物的关键环境因素。结果表明,淮河流域河南段共有水生植物38种,隶属于25科33属,分布广泛的优势种为芦苇、水花生、金鱼藻、轮叶黑藻、水蓼、水鳖、篦齿眼子菜。针对健康评价结果,淮河流域河南段水生植物呈现病态到健康状态。分析表明河流生态系统遭受破坏,生态系统呈现不稳定状况,主要原因为水质污染及人为活动干扰强烈。根据水生植物分布与水环境因子CCA响应关系研究,影响水生植物的主要因子为TP、COD、pH、电导率、氨氮。  相似文献
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郑州市近地面臭氧污染特征及气象因素分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
利用国控站点空气质量在线监测数据,识别郑州市2015年近地面臭氧(O3)污染状况、特征及与颗粒物和氮氧化物水平关系,并以烟厂站为例分析郑州市O3污染与气象要素的相关性。结果表明:郑州市O3日最大8 h平均值具有明显季节变化,呈现出夏季>春季>秋季>冬季的特征,夏季岗李水库站O3月均质量浓度为155.5 μg/m3,其余站点月均质量浓度为110~150 μg/m3;夏季O3每日最大8 h浓度具有显著"周末效应",其他季节较不明显;O3小时浓度日变化呈单峰型分布,在15:00-16:00达到峰值,早晨07:00达到谷值;前体物NOx小时浓度日变化呈双峰型分布,与O3具有显著负相关性;气象因素相关性分析结果表明,郑州市O3污染日多出现于高温、低湿和微风等条件,这些气象因素有利于O3生成和累积。  相似文献
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平顶山地区景观格局动态特征及驱动力分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
以平顶山地区为研究对象,利用平顶山地区1992年Landsat-TM影像和2006年中巴资源卫星遥感影像,运用景观生态学原理,借助遥感和GIS技术,选取景观多样性、景观优势度、景观均匀度、景观破碎度等指标指数进行分析,揭示平顶山地区近14 a来城市景观格局演变及其驱动力。研究结果表明:交通用地、工矿及居民点和耕地用地显著增加,林地、水域显著减少;除工矿及居民点外,该地区各类型斑块数量均有增加,其中林地增加最为显著;交通用地、工矿及居民点的破碎度降低,水域、林地、耕地的景观类型破碎度增高;耕地的分维数、形状指数呈下降趋势,而林地的分维数和形状指数呈上升趋势;平顶山地区景观多样性和均匀度都呈下降趋势,而优势度和破碎度增加;景观格局变化受人为因素影响较大,人口增加、经济发展、城镇化和工业发展是平顶山地区景观格局演变的主要驱动力。  相似文献
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Ambient air samples were collected at two different locations between 2011 and 2012 in Zhengzhou, China in order to assess the concentration level, health risks, as well as the sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter (PM2.5). The mean annual levels of PM2.5 observed at industry site and residential site were 172?±?121 and 160?±?72 μg m?3, respectively, which were about five times the annual value of proposed PM2.5 standard (35 μg m?3) in China. The PM2.5 in all daily samples (n?=?47) exceeds the proposed PM2.5 standard in China (75 μg m?3) at both industrial and residential sites. Seasonal variations of PM2.5 showed a clear trend of winter?>?autumn?>?spring?>?summer at both sites. The total concentrations of 16 PM2.5-associated PAHs ranged from 61?±?51 to 431?±?281 and 38?±?25 to 254?±?189 ng m?3, with mean value of 176?±?233 and 111?±?146 ng m?3 at industry and residential sites, respectively. The major species were fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[k]fluoranthene, and the concentration levels of PAHs in PM2.5 were higher in winter than those of other seasons at both sites. The annual mean values of toxicity equivalency concentrations of ∑16PAHs in PM2.5 were 22.8 and 13.5 ng m?3 in industry and residential area, respectively. In this study, the risk level of adult citizens through inhalation exposure to PAHs was calculated. The average estimates of lifetime inhalation cancer risks were approximately 8.9?×?10?7 and 6.3?×?10?7 for industry and residential sites, respectively. The main sources of 16 PAHs from both diagnostic ratios and principle component analysis identified as vehicular emissions and coal combustion.  相似文献
5.
With rapid economic development, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China has experienced a series of serious heavy metal pollution events. Considering complex hydrodynamic and pollutants transport process, one-dimensional hydrodynamic model and heavy metal transport model were developed for tidal river network of the PRD. Then, several pollution emergency scenarios were designed by combining with the upper inflow, water quality and the lower tide level boundary conditions. Using this set of models, the temporal and spatial change process of cadmium (Cd) concentration was simulated. The influence of change in hydrodynamic conditions on Cd transport in tidal river network was assessed, and its transport laws were summarized. The result showed the following: Flow changes in the tidal river network were influenced remarkably by tidal backwater action, which further influenced the transport process of heavy metals; Cd concentrations in most sections while encountering high tide were far greater than those while encountering middle or low tides; and increased inflows from upper reaches could intensify water pollution in the West River (while encountering high tide) or the North River (while encountering middle or low tides).  相似文献
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The empirical mode decomposition method is applied to analyze fluctuating periods and local features of the annual drought index and the drought index in the irrigation and non-irrigation periods from 1956 to 2010 in the Yinchuan irrigation district. In order to understand the uncertainty between these variables, the set pair analysis method is used to present the identity, discrepancy, and contrary of the drought index with multi-time scales. The results reveal that the annual drought index and the drought index in the irrigation and non-irrigation periods have a complex relationship which may be related to El Niño, the air–sea intersection, and the long period of solar activity. The drought index in the irrigation and non-irrigation periods presents mainly the contrary and the discrepancy; the fluctuating shapes of the annual drought index and drought index in the irrigation period are the same on their different period levels. The original annual drought index and its intrinsic mode function components have a certain connection degree; they mainly present the discrepancy.  相似文献
7.
为了了解小秦岭金矿区的地质环境,选用目前应用广泛的物元评价法、模糊数学评价法、灰色聚类评价法建立了地质环境评价模型,对小秦岭金矿区的地质环境进行了综合评价,结果表明,该地区的地质环境整体较好,局部地区已经严重恶化,同时,结合该地区的实际情况,提出了改善该地区地质环境质量的具体意见。  相似文献
8.
汞污染具有生物积累性,因而得到社会广泛关注。研究监测和评估了郑州市城区土壤和绿色植物叶片中汞浓度、分布、污染水平等。研究发现郑州市主城区土壤总汞浓度为0. 150~0. 958 mg/kg,平均浓度为0. 448 mg/kg;郑州市主城区绿色植物叶片总汞浓度为0. 017~0. 249 mg/kg,平均浓度为0. 107 mg/kg;土壤和叶片中汞浓度按功能区排序为交通枢纽区工业区商业区行政区高教区住宅区。采用地累积指数法对郑州市80个土壤样品的汞污染水平进行评估,结果显示60%受到轻度污染,35%受到偏中度污染,5%受到中度污染。研究较为全面地分析了土壤汞污染的现状及浓度,为郑州市土壤汞污染防治提供参考。  相似文献
9.
利用数理统计、地统计方法和地理信息系统(GIS)技术研究了灵宝市的金矿选冶区土壤汞的空间分布特性和污染程度评价。Hg和Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd 重金属元素存在较大的偏度和峰度,为了使这些元素的数据服从正态分布并降低其偏度和峰度,采用了Box-Cox变换。地统计分析认为研究区内土壤Hg元素具有空间结构特性。用普通克里格插值绘制的研究区Hg含量地球化学图体现了其空间分布特征。结合地累积指数法评价指标得出的研究区Hg污染等级分布图为土壤恢复治理提供了一定科学依据。  相似文献
10.
根据2000--2012年全国城镇生活污水排放量数据,建立了相应的GM(1,1)模型和预测函数。通过后验差检验等对预测函数进行了评估,并对2013--2017年城镇生活污水排放量进行了预测,结果表明,2013--2017年全国城镇生活污水的排放量逐年增加,呈上升趋势,从2013年的477.2736亿t上升到2017年的624.1022亿t;灰色预测模型和方法简单易用,利用较少的数据即可进行精度较高的预测。  相似文献
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