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1.
2008年1月广州颗粒物数浓度污染特征   总被引:9,自引:3,他引:6  
于2008年1月利用颗粒物计数器(CPC)、颗粒物在线观测仪(TEOM1400a)、自动气象站以及现时天气现象传感器(PWV22)获得了大气颗粒物中每分钟颗粒物数浓度、每30分钟PM2.5>浓度、风速、相对湿度、降雨量等气象因子以及大气能见度.结果发现,1月份能见度低于10km的天数达到25天,其中灰霾天气有17天.灰霾天气下,颗粒物敖浓度为22032±4731个/立方厘米,PM2.5,浓度为123.1±64.5 μg/m3.非灰霾和灰霾天气下颗粒物数浓度日变化趋势总体比较接近,但在13:00~16:00时段,非灰霾天气条件下颗粒物数浓度变化比较明显,而灰霾天气条件下颗粒物数浓度变化比较平缓.现测期内颗粒物教浓度与大气能见度、相对湿度、风速呈负相关,与PM2.5质量浓度、温度呈正相关.灰霾天气下颗粒物数浓度与PM2.5浓度、相对湿度的相关性系数绝对值明显高于非灰霾天气下颗粒物数浓度与这两者的相关性系数绝对值.  相似文献
2.
重金属铅由于其对人体健康的影响而广受关注。利用在线单颗粒气溶胶质谱仪对2012年发生在华南地区的一次金属铅污染事故中的含铅颗粒物的质谱特征、粒径分布及排放规律进行了分析。监测发现A、B两个监测点位的含铅颗粒物比例多在夜间或凌晨达到高峰,高峰时刻含铅颗粒物数浓度占比最高可达67%,对比广州市区、鹤山超级站的含铅颗粒物浓度占比,可知该地区含铅颗粒物的污染程度较高。两监测点位的含铅颗粒物质谱特征及粒径分布情况非常相似,可能存在相同的排放源或具有相同的形成机制。质谱中都均含有明显的铅、元素碳、硫、硫酸盐等信号,可能来自于燃煤源的排放。通过进一步对比分析燃煤烟气排放的含铅颗粒物质谱特征,判断其为燃煤源排放。  相似文献
3.
广州地区大气能见度与颗粒物关系的初探   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
采用番禺大气成分站2007—2013年的能见度、颗粒物(PM1、PM2.5、PM10)及番禺气象局站的相对湿度(RH)资料,对颗粒物7年来的变化状况进行了分析。以 RH 为标准,将能见度和颗粒物数据分为 RH≥90%、80%<RH <90%和 RH≤80%3个部分,并以相关系数(R2)为判断标准,分别对其之间的相关性进行了分析。结果表明,PM10、PM2.5、PM1多年日平均值分别为56.6、43.0、38.5μg /m3,颗粒物值旱季高于雨季。当 RH≤80%时,颗粒物与能见度的相关性最好,R2大小顺序为:PM10(0.47)<PM2.5(0.57)<PM1(0.58);当80%<RH <90%时,颗粒物与能见度的相关性次之,分别为 PM10(0.4)<PM2.5(0.46)<PM1(0.49);当 RH≥90%时,颗粒物与能见度的相关性较差。  相似文献
4.
The heavy metal concentrations of soil and dust samples from roadside, residential areas, parks, campus sport grounds, and commercial sites were studied in Guangzhou, South China. Heavy metals in samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer following acidic digestion with HClO4 + HF + HNO3. High concentrations, especially of Cd, Pb, and Zn, were found with mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the urban dusts being 4.22?±?1.21, 62.2?±?27.1, 116?±?30, 31.9?±?12.6, 72.6?±?17.9, and 504?±?191 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The respective levels in urban soils (0.23?±?0.19, 22.4?±?13.8, 41.6?±?29.4, 11.1?±?5.3, 65.4?±?40.2, and 277?±?214 mg/kg dry weight, respectively), were significantly lower. The integrated pollution index of six metals varied from 0.25 to 3.4 and from 2.5 to 8.4 in urban soils and dusts, respectively, with 61 % of urban soil samples being classified as moderately to highly polluted and all dust samples being classified as highly polluted. The statistical analysis results for the urban dust showed good agreement between principal component analysis and cluster analysis, but distinctly different elemental associations and clustering patterns were observed among heavy metals in the urban soils. The results of multivariate statistic analysis indicated that Cr and Ni concentrations were mainly of natural origin, while Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were derived from anthropogenic activities.  相似文献
5.
In order to understand the water quality and the genotoxicity of various surfaces in the Guangzhou section of the Pearl River during January to December of 2008, we investigated and studied the current water situation of the surface microlayer (SML) and the subsurface water (SSW) in Guanzhou section (Zhongda Dock and Yuzhu Dock) of the Pearl River by chemical analysis and biological monitoring method (Vicia faba micronucleus test). The results showed that during these months concentrations of the indexes of the two docks water such as total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD) exceeded the national III level of surface water quality, and the indexes of SML were much higher than the ones of SSW (P?< 0.05), and the exceeding rate of TN, TP of SML was 100%. According to the eutrophic evaluation standard, the water bodies of SML and SSW in the two docks were in a eutrophication during these months. The eutrophication and pollution of SML was more serious, and the highest index of eutrophication (E value) was up to 81.9, which also had obvious difference with COD and TP (P?< 0.05). The water of SML in the two docks enriched to N, P, and chlorophyll a (Chl. a) seriously, and the enrichment factor of SML in Zhongda Dock to N, P, and Chl. a was 0.71 ?? 2.78, 0.98 ?? 1.18, and 0.49 ?? 13.99, respectively, and the one in the Yuzhu Dock was 1.09 ?? 1.52, 1 ?? 1.14, and 0.72 ?? 4.07, respectively. Through inspecting the water genotoxicity of various layers by V. faba micronucleus test, we could know that the average annual MCN?? of SML and SSW in the two docks was 6.09??, 5.53??, 5.57??, and 5.249??, respectively. In general, the above value of SML was a little higher than the one of SSW, but there was not a remarkable difference (P?> 0.05). This research shows that the water quality in a medium to heavy eutrophication in the Guangzhou section of Pearl River belongs to national III ?? IV level, and SML has the capability of enrichment to the pollutants such as N and P and induces the increase of micronucleus rate of V. faba tip cell. The study also indicates that there may be genotoxicity matters such as N, P in water body.  相似文献
6.
The tropical cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is of particular concern for its invasive characteristics and production of the toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN). The present study represents the first attempt to determine the distribution of C. raciborskii and CYN in tropical China. The presence of C. raciborskii and CYN, as well as the composition of phytoplankton, was determined from a total of 86 samples from 25 urban reservoirs for drinking water supply in Dongguan City of South China. The presence of C. raciborskii was observed in 21 of the 25 reservoirs and confirmed that this species has been widely distributed in the investigated reservoirs. C. raciborskii accounted for between 0.1 and 90.3 % of the total phytoplankton biomass and contributed to the majority of the phytoplankton in some reservoirs such as Tangkengbian and Xiagongyan. Its biomass was negatively correlated with NO3 ?-N concentration and Secchi depth. Dissolved CYN was detected in more than one-half of the reservoirs with concentrations up to 8.25 μg L?1, and it positively correlated with C. raciborskii biomass. Dissolved microcystins (MCs) were detected in 12 of the 25 reservoirs with a maximum concentration 1.99 μg L?1. Our data strongly suggest that C. raciborskii and CYN could be important health hazards in urban reservoirs of South China and that more data are needed for further assessment.  相似文献
7.
惠州农业土壤、灌溉水和农产品中有机氯农药的残留   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
用气相色谱法(GC-ECD)对惠州市51个农业土壤样品、12个灌溉水样品和21个农产品样品中的HCHs和DDTs残留量进行了测定.HCHs平均含量分别为土壤1.66μg/kg、灌溉水5.86ng/L、农产品24.74μg/kg;DDTs平均含量分别为土壤4.98μg/kg、灌溉水2.06ng/L、农产品41.72μg/kg,土壤中有机氯农药通过多种方式进入到水体及农产品中.从HCHs和DDTs异构体组成可以看出,环境中绝大多数农药残留是由于历史上使用造成的,个别地区可能还有新的污染输入.同其它地区相比,惠州农业土壤和灌溉水中的有机氯农药残留水平较低,但农产品尤其是蔬菜中DDTs富集程度较高.  相似文献
8.
Interpretations of state and trends in lake water quality are generally based on measurements from one or more stations that are considered representative of the response of the lake ecosystem. The objective of this study is to examine how these interpretations may be influenced by station location in a large lake. We addressed this by analyzing trends in water quality variables collected monthly from eight monitoring stations along a transect from the central lake to the north in Lake Taihu (area about 2,338 km2), China, from October 1991 to December 2011. The parameters examined included chlorophyll a (Chl a), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations, and Secchi disk depth (SD). The individual variables were increasingly poorly correlated among stations along the transect from the central lake to the north, particularly for Chl a and TP. The timing of peaks in individual variables was also dependent on station location, with spectral analysis revealing a peak at annual frequency for the central lake station but absence of, or much reduced signal, at this frequency for the near-shore northern station. Percentage annual change values for each of the four variables also varied with station and indicated general improvement in water quality at northern stations, particularly for TN, but little change or decline at central lake stations. Sediment resuspension and tributary nutrient loads were considered to be responsible for some of the variability among stations. Our results indicate that temporal trends in water quality may be station specific in large lakes and that calculated whole-lake trophic status trends or responses to management actions may be specific to the station(s) selected for monitoring and analysis. These results have important implications for efficient design of monitoring programs that are intended to integrate the natural spatial variability of large lakes.  相似文献
9.
A coupled MM5–CAMx air quality modeling system was used to simulate SO2 concentrations in Beijing, China during the heating season. Particulate matter source apportionment technology was employed to investigate the apportionment of SO2 sources in the study area. Comprehensive analysis of the industry and region revealed that the most important SO2 contributors were publicly and privately supplied heating emission sources and other industry emission sources from the urban areas of Beijing, with 66.1?% of the emission source contribution ratio. Four SO2 emission reduction scenarios based on our SO2 source apportionment research were established to assess the potential for improving the SO2 air quality in Beijing during the heating season. By weighing the desired SO2 improvement, the availability of technology, and economic considerations, a suitable SO2 reduction plan was able to be recommended for Beijing city.  相似文献
10.
为推进城市空气质量精细化管理工作的实施,实现VOCs污染源精准排查,2019年3—4月,利用单光子电离飞行时间质谱对青岛市重点区域进行了VOCs走航观测。在排查到的污染源中,工业区的VOCs浓度较生活区整体偏高,且生活区、工业区夜间的VOCs浓度均较白天高。VOCs各类组分中,生活区白天苯系物、卤代烃、烯烃、烷烃的占比均在20%左右,夜间苯系物占比明显升高;工业区苯系物在白天和夜间的占比均最高,其他组分相对较小。浓度较高的前10位VOCs物种中,生活区白天烯烃物种占主导,夜间烷烃物种的比重明显增加;工业区苯系物、烯烃物种在白天和夜间的比重均较大,烷烃物种较小。生活区VOCs的污染源主要为机动车尾气排放和油品挥发,工业区主要为企业排放。烯烃和苯系物臭氧生成贡献较烷烃高,特别是丁烯、戊烯、己烯、甲苯、二甲苯/乙苯、三甲苯贡献显著,建议作为优控物种重点管控。  相似文献
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