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1.
江苏省级区域空气质量数值预报模式效果评估   总被引:11,自引:8,他引:3  
采用中国科学院大气物理研究所开发的嵌套网格空气质量模式系统(NAQPMS),搭建江苏省级区域空气质量数值预报模式系统,并测试了该系统对2013年夏季江苏省PM2.5质量浓度未来24 h预报以及7 d潜势预测的效果。结果表明,该系统成功应用于江苏省的空气质量预报;所有地市的24 h预报效果均在合理范围内(平均分数偏差小于±60%且平均分数误差小于75%);7 d潜势预测效果比24 h预报效果略差,整体能准确把握PM2.5质量浓度的变化趋势。  相似文献
2.
This study investigated the extent of heavy metal accumulation in leaf vegetables and associated potential health risks in agricultural areas of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China. Total concentrations of mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) were determined in 92 pairs of soil and leaf vegetable (flowering Chinese cabbage, lettuce, pakchoi, Chinese cabbage, loose-leaf lettuce, and Chinese leaf mustard) samples collected from seven agricultural areas (cities). The bioconcentration factors (BCF) of heavy metals from soil to vegetables were estimated, and the potential health risks of heavy metal exposure to the PRD residents through consumption of local leaf vegetables were assessed. Results showed that among the six leaf vegetables, pakchoi had the lowest capacity for heavy metal enrichment, whereas among the five heavy metals, Cd had the highest capacity for transferring from soil into vegetables, with BCF values 30-fold those of Hg and 50-fold those of Cr, Pb and As. Sewage irrigation and fertilization were likely the main sources of heavy metals accumulated in leaf vegetables grown in agricultural areas of the PRD region. Different from previous findings, soil pH had no clear effect on metal accumulation in leaf vegetables. Despite a certain degree of metal enrichment from soil to leaf vegetables, the PRD residents were not exposed to significant health risks associated with consumption of local leaf vegetables. Nevertheless, more attention should be paid to children due to their sensitivity to metal pollutants.  相似文献
3.
The water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir is located in the intersection of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and assessing heavy metal pollution in the drown zone is critical for ecological remediation and water conservation. In this study, soils were collected in June and September 2009 in natural recovery area and revegetation area of the WLFZ, and geochemical approaches including geoaccumulation index (I geo) and factor analysis and soil microbial community structure were applied to assess the spatial variability and evaluate the influence of revegetation on metals in the WLFZ. Geochemical approaches demonstrated the moderate pollutant of Cd, the slight pollutant of Hg, and four types of pollutant sources including industrial and domestic wastewater, natural rock weathering, traffic exhaust, and crustal materials in the WLFZ. Our results also demonstrated significantly lower concentrations for elements of As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Mn in the revegetation area. Moreover, soil microbial community structure failed to monitor the heavy metal pollution in such a relatively clean area. Our results suggest that revegetation plays an important role in controlling heavy metal pollution in the WLFZ of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.  相似文献
4.
Ecological security has become so important that it will affect the national security and social sustainable development. In this paper, a case study on the ecological security indexes of modern oasis landscapes in Beitun Oasis, Xinjiang, was carried out. The spatial neighbouring parameters, such as the contiguous length, measure of area and patch quantity of oasis landscape patches, affected by desert landscape patches were calculated by using GIS-based buffer analysis, the method of calculating ecological security indexes of oasis landscape was developed, and the dynamic changes of patterns and ecological security indexes of the oasis landscapes since recent 30 years were analyzed. The results showed that soil salinization or alkalization and paludification were major factors affecting the ecological security in Beitun Oasis. Therefore, measures should be taken actively to prevent and control secondary salinization and paludification. The ecological security indexes of the oasis landscape in 1972, 1990 and 2005 were 78.91, 82.28 and 83.86, respectively, which showed the degree of security is improving, and the environment was developing harmoniously between human and nature. The methods of evaluating ecological security based on the spatial neighbouring relations between landscape patches can be used to reflect preliminarily the ecological security patterns of landscapes.  相似文献
5.
典型重金属污染农田能源植物示范种植研究   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5       下载免费PDF全文
为探索安全经济利用重金属中度-重度污染农田的模式,在浙江某典型重金属复合污染农田开展了能源植物(甜高粱Sweet sorghum、甘蔗Saccharum sinensis Roxb.、香根草Vetiveria和盐肤木Rhus chinensis)种植示范研究。结果表明,经施加0.1%的石灰和0.2%的磷矿粉改良后,土壤pH值升高,有效态重金属含量显著降低。甜高粱、甘蔗和香根草的生物量受到土壤有效态重金属的一定影响。甘蔗、甜高粱汁液总糖和还原糖的含量并没有受到不同处理的显著影响。汁液的单位面积产量,甜高粱是甘蔗的2倍多。研究结果说明,在重金属污染农田施加适量的改良剂(石灰和磷矿粉)后可以进行甘蔗、甜高粱、香根草等能源植物的生产。  相似文献
6.
一种评估烟花爆竹燃放对大气PM2.5影响的新方法   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3  
基于北京市空气质量自动监测系统2013年2月常规污染物监测数据,提出了定量估算烟花爆竹燃放对大气PM2.5影响的污染物相对比值(PM2.5/CO)法。利用该方法研究表明,2013年北京除夕烟花爆竹燃放使PM2.5单站1小时平均浓度最大增加709 μg/m3(石景山古城监测点);全市24小时平均浓度增加88 μg/m3,达到159 μg/m3,空气质量由良好升级为重度污染。元宵节夜间烟花爆竹燃放使PM2.5单站1小时平均浓度最大增加469 μg/m3(海淀万柳监测点),全市24小时平均浓度增加54 μg/m3。除夕夜、元宵夜全市平均烟花爆竹PM2.5浓度超过75 μg/m3的时间分别为5、7 h,达到峰值后半衰期分别为0.9、1.7 h。城区烟花爆竹PM2.5浓度高于郊区,并可导致下风向郊区的PM2.5浓度显著增加。除夕、元宵节北京市区烟花爆竹排放PM2.5总量分别约为1.91×105 kg、1.17×105 kg。  相似文献
7.
重金属污染土壤及场地的植物修复技术发展与应用   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
重金属污染土壤及场地的治理工作迫在眉睫,植物修复技术以其成本低、不破坏土壤生态环境、无二次污染、易被公众接受等优点,受到了学术界的广泛关注。近年来,国内外在植物修复技术的植物资源筛选、调控技术、修复植物产后处理等方面进行了广泛的研究。植物修复已经从实验室阶段走向了田间示范和推广应用阶段。现就近年来植物修复技术在重金属污染土壤和场地的发展和应用方面进行了综述。  相似文献
8.
赣东北德兴矿区周边女性居民头发中重金属分布特征   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
应用ICP-MS/AFS测定江西德兴矿区(铜矿和铅锌矿)周边地区祝家村和戴村女性居民头发中重金属含量。探讨了河水、土壤、饮用水、人发中的重金属分布,着重分析了人发中重金属含量与年龄间的关系,指出最易受环境污染危害的人群。研究表明,人发中重金属含量与人所处的地质环境密切相关,人发中重金属含量主要受控于地质环境中某个(些)主导因素。不同年龄段人群重金属元素的分布对矿山开发环境的响应不同。人发中一些有害元素(Pb、Cd)在儿童组(15岁以下)普遍表现为高含量。这说明矿山开发释放的污染元素对儿童的危害最大。不同地区不同元素与年龄间的关系不同。人发重金属含量与年龄关系较为复杂,不存在统一的结论,应具体情况具体分析。  相似文献
9.
中、英、美污染场地风险评估导则异同与启示   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
近年来,随着国家"退二进三"旧城改造政策的实施,全国几乎所有的大中城市正面临着大批多种污染行业企业的关闭和搬迁,这些搬迁企业遗留场地都存在着不同程度的环境与健康风险。开展定量评估人体健康与生态环境风险是建立我国工业污染场地管理体系不可缺少的技术手段,也是适合我国国情并走向可持续性(绿色)土壤与地下水修复及综合环境管理的必然发展方向。包括美国和英国在内的许多发达国家都在利用一种多层次的基于风险的评估技术框架来鉴定和管理污染场地。文章着重比较中、英、美场地风险评估技术导则的异同性及其对完善我国场地风险评估技术导则的启示。  相似文献
10.
气相色谱法检测地下水中六六六和滴滴涕   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
采用环己烷萃取、浓硫酸净化,联合气相色谱电子捕获检测器分析地下水中的六六六和滴滴涕,优化了升温程序、进样口温度、衬管等分析参数。8种组分在8.6 m in内完全分离,在0.001 mg/L~0.200 mg/L范围内标准工作曲线线性良好,检出限为0.03μg/L~0.38μg/L,标准溶液平行测定的RSD为0.1%~4.8%,加标回收率为90.0%~131%。  相似文献
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