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1.
土壤重金属监测过程及其质量控制   总被引:9,自引:8,他引:1  
重点探讨了土壤中典型重金属含量监测过程中样品制备、含水率、预处理等因素对分析结果的影响。实验结果表明,充分风干土壤的含水率在2%~3%左右,200目土壤颗粒度可满足分析精度的要求。硝酸-氢氟酸-高氯酸的多元混酸消解体系可实现对土壤重金属的充分溶解,对标准土壤样品中各元素的回收率可达84%~98%。批次内平行样品以及批次间质控样品各元素的相对标准偏差大都小于10%,符合《土壤环境监测技术规范》的要求,表明该研究建立的系统土壤重金属检测方法结果准确可靠。  相似文献
2.
水环境遥感监测技术的应用研究进展   总被引:6,自引:2,他引:4  
遥感技术在水环境监测方面得到了日益广泛的应用.文章综述了水环境遥感监测技术在水体富营养化、悬浮固体、油污染和热污染等四个方面的应用研究现状,并对今后的研究发展方向进行了展望.  相似文献
3.
液相微萃取技术及其在环境水样预处理中的应用   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5       下载免费PDF全文
介绍了液相微萃取技术的基本原理、萃取过程与中空纤维的形式。分析了中空纤维、有机萃取剂、吸收液体积、样品搅动、无机盐类、pH值和萃取时间等因素对萃取效果的影响。综述了液相微萃取技术在环境水样预处理中的应用。  相似文献
4.
The occurrence and behavior of carbamazepine (CBZ) was investigated in aquatic environment of Yangtze River Delta, East China. The water samples were enriched by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector. The validation of the analytical method included linearity (0.1?C1 mg/L), recovery studies, and determination of limits of quantification. Limits of quantification of CBZ in various aquatic samples were in the range of 0.1?C0.2 ??g/L. CBZ was detected in the Tongji University Intramural River, the Huangpu River, and the Suzhou River with the highest concentration of 1,090 ng/L, but not detected in the Nanhengyin River and the Caojia River. In sewage water samples, CBZ was not detected in one of the sewage treatment plants (STPs) but was detected in the raw influents and effluents at the other three selected STPs in Shanghai, with the concentrations ranging from 230 to 1,110 ng/L. CBZ was not completely eliminated after secondary treatment (with the active sludge process).  相似文献
5.
The interest of culturing bivalved shellfish (including mussels, clams, oysters etc.), has increased in recent years, but the consumption has been hampered both by high levels of heavy metals and toxic algae. The levels of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and As) were determined in soft tissues of different shellfish from Zhejiang coastal waters, East China Sea. The average concentrations of the heavy metals analyzed exhibited the following decreasing order: Zn > Cu > As > Cd > Pb > Hg. Comparison of heavy metals concentrations among species indicated that Bivalves clearly have significant potential as useful bioindicators; however, the results indicated that no one species is universally suitable, as is true of any organism used in these studies. The distribution of the metals was also investigated along the Zhejiang coast, which the results showed the mean concentration of Hg and Cd detected did not vary greatly and presented a similar spatial pattern at different sampling stations, the concentrations of Zn and Pb were highly variable at different sampling sites. The amounts of heavy metals in soft tissue of shellfish were also compared with those from the related species from other seas in China and world marine waters. The results suggested that the coastal area might be considered relatively unpolluted with heavy metals and the concentrations of metals in shellfish also below the seafood safety limits for human consumption.  相似文献
6.
In this study, 226 samples of seven types of domestic vegetables collected from several vegetable-growing regions in Hebei Province of China were tested for the presence of 38 different agricultural pesticides using a gas chromatograph equipped with electron capture and nitrogen phosphorus detectors. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of pesticides in main vegetables from Hebei Province. Results showed that, in 65.93 % of the samples, no residues were found, 31.42 % of the samples contained pesticide residues at or below the maximum residue levels (MRLs), and 2.65 % of the samples contained pesticide residues above MRL. The most frequently detected pesticides were acephate (31), followed by cyhalothrin (15), bifenthrin (8), omethoate (6), isazophos (6), dimethoate (5), chlorpyrifos (2), and malathion (1). Some (1.33 %) of the samples contained multiple residues. The results provide useful information on the current contamination status of a key agricultural area in North China, and points to the continuous monitoring and strict regulation of pesticide use on vegetables are necessary.  相似文献
7.
基于比值法解析老城区河段氮磷污染特征   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
2013年12月-2015年2月,对南淝河老城区约4 km河段水体和主要点源的氮、磷污染物进行测定,并利用碳氮比(CODCr/TN)、氮磷比(TN/TP)、氨氮百分含量(NH3-N/TN)等主要指标对所得数据进行分析研究。结果表明,南淝河老城区段水体的氮磷污染严重,氨氮百分含量接近甚至超过50%,具有一般城市生活污水的特征;氮磷比在春夏季处于藻类适宜的生长范围(9.0 < TN/TP < 22.6);整个水体处于低碳氮比水平(碳氮比小于2.5),不利于水体的净化;主要受上游望塘污水处理厂、城市生活污水和地表径流的影响。其主要支流四里河水体的氮磷污染亦相当严重,且氮、磷污染物的输入途径一致。  相似文献
8.
便携式傅里叶红外分析仪测定水中挥发性有机污染物   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
发明了一种利用GASMET FTIR Dx4020便携式傅里叶红外分析仪测定水中挥发性有机物的实用方法,该方法可以定性定量25个水中挥发性有机物.该方法具有简便快捷、灵敏度高等特点,以苯系物中各单组分物质为例,方法检测限为11 ~45μg/L,相对标准偏差为3.4% ~ 6.6%,加标回收率为98% ~ 109%,在浓度范围内具有良好的线性.但对苯系物混合物定量准确性还需进一步研究提高.  相似文献
9.
An on-site solid-phase extraction, consisting of the sorption, the separation and the elution function units, was designed for in situ preconcentration of heavy metals ions. The D401 resin powder was employed as sorbent to capture Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Co2+, and Ni2+, and then they desorbed with 2 mol/L nitric acid as eluent. Under the optimized conditions, these heavy metals ions in West Lake, Taihu Lake, and Yangtze River of China were captured and then determined by ICP-OES with the recovery of 92.5% to 111.5%. The on-site solid-phase extraction achieved a quick preconcentration of heavy metals to avoid the transport and storage of a large volume water sample. It is suitable for in situ monitoring of water quality in mountains, tablelands or other remote areas.  相似文献
10.
As organisms are typically exposed to chemical mixtures over long periods of time, chronic mixture toxicity is the best way to perform an environmental risk assessment (ERA). However, it is difficult to obtain the chronic mixture toxicity data due to the high expense and the complexity of the data acquisition method. Therefore, an approach was proposed in this study to predict chronic mixture toxicity. The acute (15 min exposure) and chronic (24 h exposure) toxicity of eight antibiotics and trimethoprim to Vibrio fischeri were determined in both single and binary mixtures. The results indicated that the risk quotients (RQs) of antibiotics should be based on the chronic mixture toxicity. To predict the chronic mixture toxicity, a docking-based receptor library of antibiotics and the receptor-library-based quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) model were developed. Application of the developed QSAR model to the ERA of antibiotic mixtures demonstrated that there was a close affinity between RQs based on the observed chronic toxicity and the corresponding RQs based on the predicted data. The average coefficients of variations were 46.26 and 34.93 % and the determination coefficients (R 2) were 0.999 and 0.998 for the low concentration group and the high concentration group, respectively. This result convinced us that the receptor library would be a promising tool for predicting the chronic mixture toxicity of antibiotics and that it can be further applied in ERA.  相似文献
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