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Vegetation change in the American West has been a subject of concern throughout the twentieth century. Although many of the changes have been recorded qualitatively through the use of comparative photography and historical reports, little quantitative information has been available on the regional or watershed scale. It is currently possible to measure change over large areas and determine trends in ecological and hydrological condition using advanced space-based technologies. Specifically, this process is being tested in a community-based watershed in southeast Arizona and northeast Sonora, Mexico using a system of landscape pattern measurements derived from satellite remote sensing, spatial statistics, process modeling, and geographic information systems technology. These technologies provide the basis for developing landscape composition and pattern indicators as sensitive measures of large-scale environmental change and thus may provide an effective and economical method for evaluating watershed condition related to disturbance from human and natural stresses. The project utilizes the database from the North American Landscape Characterization (NALC) project which incorporates triplicate Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) imagery from the early 1970s, mid 1980s, and the 1990s. Landscape composition and pattern metrics have been generated from digital land cover maps derived from the NALC images and compared across a nearly 20-year period. Results about changes in land cover for the study period indicate that extensive, highly connected grassland and desertscrub areas are the most vulnerable ecosystems to fragmentation and actual loss due to encroachment of xerophytic mesquite woodland. In the study period, grasslands and desertscrub not only decreased in extent but also became more fragmented. That is, the number of grassland and desertscrub patches increased and their average patch sizes decreased. In stark contrast, the mesquite woodland patches increased in size, number, and connectivity. These changes have important impact for the hydrology of the region, since the energy and water balance characteristics for these cover types are significantly different. The process demonstrates a simple procedure to document changes and determine ecosystem vulnerabilities through the use of change detection and indicator development, especially in regard to traditional degradation processes that have occurred throughout the western rangelands involving changes of vegetative cover and acceleration of water and wind erosion.  相似文献
土壤重金属监测过程及其质量控制   总被引:9,自引:8,他引:1  
重点探讨了土壤中典型重金属含量监测过程中样品制备、含水率、预处理等因素对分析结果的影响。实验结果表明,充分风干土壤的含水率在2%~3%左右,200目土壤颗粒度可满足分析精度的要求。硝酸-氢氟酸-高氯酸的多元混酸消解体系可实现对土壤重金属的充分溶解,对标准土壤样品中各元素的回收率可达84%~98%。批次内平行样品以及批次间质控样品各元素的相对标准偏差大都小于10%,符合《土壤环境监测技术规范》的要求,表明该研究建立的系统土壤重金属检测方法结果准确可靠。  相似文献
浅谈环境监测实验室设备管理   总被引:7,自引:1,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
针对目前实验室认可和实验室资质认定评审中环境监测实验室普遍存在问题,提出正确实施仪器设备量值溯源、期间核查、维护,编写仪器设备使用维护规程,制定仪器设备的校准和/或检定(验证)、确认的总体要求,完善仪器设备档案管理,确保管理体系持续有效运行。  相似文献
气相色谱分析中样品介质不同对分析结果的影响   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5       下载免费PDF全文
分析了用甲醇、乙酸乙酯和二硫化碳3种不同极性的介质配制的4种苯系物样品,在不同极性的石英毛细柱、不同的分流比、宽口径石英毛细柱、宽口径玻璃毛细柱和玻璃填充柱上的测量结果。指出不同介质的有机化合物样品在气相色谱上分析时,色谱柱的极性(非极性、中等极性、强极性)、色谱柱类型(毛细柱、宽口径毛细柱、填充柱)、分流比的大小、进样方式(分流、不分流)都对数据的一致性产生影响,但采用不分流方式的宽口径毛细柱或填充柱分析可使分析结果具有一致性或更准确。  相似文献
土壤介质中酞酸酯类污染物分析方法研究   总被引:3,自引:2,他引:1  
介绍了加压流体提取(PFL、ASE)提取-GPC净化-GC/MS分析土壤中酞酸酯类污染物方法的程序和质控要求,研究了每个步骤对分析六种目标物准确度和精密度的影响以及测定实际土壤样品的情况.结果显示,加压流体提取(PFL)、浓缩和GPC净化各步骤全程序空白加标回收率分别在86.3%~108%、78.5%~117%和87.4%~103%范围,精密度均在15%以内.在实际土壤样品中加入六种酞酸酯标准的加标回收率在45.2%~103.4%范围内,其相对标准偏差8%~23%.  相似文献
Spatial statistical analysis of georeferenced data of total cadmium (TCd) in forest soils of Sweden was assumed to providemore advantageous maps than traditional interpolated maps. However, 264 measurements of TCd in O-horizon of forest soils displayed skewed frequency distribution. Since atypicalobservations affect badly the variogram, outliers wereidentified, different data transformations were tested andordinary (OK) and lognormal kriging (LK) scenarios werecompared based on cross-validation. Results were comparedusing overall measures of predictors, e.g. traditionalmean squared prediction error (MSPE), mean of krigingvariances, variance ratio, median of internallystandardised residuals, and assessments of classificationaccuracy, such as percentage of correctly predictedsamples and within-class MSPE.One outlier was identified based on the absolute value of skewness of value differences less or equal to one in data pairs separated at certain lag classes. Mapping categories characterised by percentage of correct classification and within-class MSPE were found to be essential in comparison of kriging results additionally to the overall measures. In comparison of kriging methods, OK predicted high values moreaccurately and LK was more effective to predict low and mediumvalues. Thus, OK was suggested for mapping high concentration of TCd and other pollutants. Percentage of correctly predictedsamples and within-class MSPE were found to be dependent on kriging method, as well as on the number and limits of categories.  相似文献
烟气连续监测系统的相对准确度检测   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
阐述了HJ/T76—2001《固定污染源排放烟气连续监测系统技术要求及检测方法》标准中烟气连续监测系统的相对准确度计算和相对准确度计算中存在的问题。对存在问题中的重复性或复现性的假设、B类不确定度的忽略、标准分析方法平均值的采用和偏差检验进行了探讨。  相似文献
环境监测质量控制技术探讨-准确度控制   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
阐述了环境监测准确度控制的概念以及常用方法,提出了标准溶液控制的概念和方法,并对质控样控制的合格判断、加标回收率计算修正以及定性加标的应用提出独到见解。  相似文献
检验环境影响预测准确度统计方法的研究近况   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
开展环境影响评价工作近二十年来,国内外对预测结果准确度的检验尚无制定统一标准,而预测结果的准确与否,又直接影响到环境影响报告书的质量。为此,本文将国内外这方面的研究状况作以评论,以供从事环境影响评价和后评估的专业人员参考  相似文献
2016年秋季新乡市空气质量模式预报效果评估   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
基于新乡市空气质量数值预报平台,采用相关系数(r)、标准化平均偏差(NMB)等统计指标,系统评估2016年秋季新乡市嵌套网格空气质量预报模式(NAQPMS)和通用多尺度空气质量模式(CMAQ)的预报效果,对比分析2套模式不同预报时效和不同水平分辨率的空气质量等级预报准确率。结果显示:2套模式均较好地表征了各主要污染物的浓度变化特征,2套模式的等级预报准确率高于60%,其中CMAQ对中度及重度的预报等级准确率达到70%。对比模式24、48、72 h 3种预报时效效果,24 h预报时效的统计数据最优,说明24 h预报时效模拟结果可作为业务预报重要的支撑。  相似文献
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