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1.
The global plastics production has increased annually and a substantial part is used for packaging (in Europe 39%). Most plastic packages are discarded after a relatively short service life and the resulting plastic packaging waste is subsequently landfilled, incinerated or recycled. Laws of several European and Asian countries require that plastic packaging waste collected from households has to be sorted, reprocessed, compounded and reused. These recycling schemes typically produce milled goods of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(ethylene) (PE), isotactic poly(propylene) (PP), mixed plastics, and agglomerates from film material. The present study documents the composition and properties of post-consumer polyolefin recyclates originating from both source separation and mechanical recovery from municipal solid refuse waste (MSRW). The overall composition by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were determined and compared with the sorting results of the sorted fractions prior to the reprocessing into milled goods. This study shows that the collection method for the plastic packaging waste has hardly any influence on the final quality of the recyclate; however, the sorting and reprocessing steps influence the final quality of the recyclate. Although the mechanical properties of recyclate are clearly different than those of virgin polymers, changes to the sorting and reprocessing steps can improve the quality.  相似文献   
2.
Several models have been developed to assess the biological integrity of aquatic systems using fish community data. One of these, the target fish community (TFC) model, has been used primarily to assess the biological integrity of larger, mainstem rivers in southern New England with basins characterized by dispersed human activities. We tested the efficacy of the TFC approach to specify the fish community in the highly urbanized Charles River watershed in eastern Massachusetts. To create a TFC for the Charles River we assembled a list of fish species that historically inhabited the Charles River watershed, identified geomorphically and zoogeographically similar reference rivers regarded as being in high quality condition, amassed fish survey data for the reference rivers, and extracted from the collections the information needed to define a TFC. We used a similarity measurement method to assess the extent to which the study river community complies with the TFC and an inference approach to summarize the manner in which the existing fish community differed from target conditions. The five most abundant species in the TFC were common shiners (34%), fallfish (17%) redbreast sunfish (11%), white suckers (8%), and American eel (7%). Three of the five species predicted to be most abundant in the TFC were scarce or absent in the existing river community. Further, the river was dominated by macrohabitat generalists (99%) while the TFC was predicted to contain 19% fluvial specialist species, 43% fluvial dependent species, and 38% macrohabitat generalist species. In addition, while the target community was dominated by fish intolerant (37%) and moderately tolerant (39%) of water quality degradation, the existing community was dominated by tolerant individuals (59%) and lacked intolerant species expected in the TFC. Similarity scores for species, habitat use specialization, and water quality degradation tolerance categories were 28%, 35% and 66%, respectively. The clear pattern of deviations from target conditions when observing fish habitat requirements strongly suggests that physical habitat change should be a priority for river enhancement in the Charles River. Comparison of our target and existing fish communities to those from a comprehensive study of Northeastern fish assemblage responses to urban intensity gradients revealed very similar results. Likewise, comparison of our TFC community and affinity scores to those of other TFCs from similar regions also yielded similar results and encouraging findings. Based on the positive results of these comparisons, the utility of the findings from the inference approach, and the widespread adoption of the TFC in the Northeast US, it appears that the TFC approach can be used effectively to identify the composition of a healthy fish community and guide river enhancements in both highly urbanized and non-urbanized streams and rivers in the Northeast US.  相似文献   
3.
施用碱渣对茶园土壤酸度和茶叶品质的影响   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
开展田间小区试验研究了不同施用量条件下碱渣对酸化茶园土壤的酸度和茶叶品质的影响.结果表明,施用碱渣可以显著提高土壤pH、土壤交换性盐基和盐基饱和度,降低土壤交换性酸和交换性铝含量,并使土壤中钙、镁养分保持合理比例.施用碱渣提高了茶叶中茶多酚、儿茶素、咖啡碱、氨基酸和叶绿素含量,降低了茶叶中铅含量,使茶叶品质得到改善.碱渣施用量为4 500 kg·hm-2时,可将土壤pH值调节至5.51,达到最适合茶树生长的酸度条件,该条件下生产的茶叶品质也最佳,茶叶茶多酚、儿茶素、咖啡碱、氨基酸和叶绿素含量分别比对照提高22.5%、27.8%、34.9%、69.0%和52.1%,而Pb含量下降51.2%.  相似文献   
4.
室内空气中颗粒物污染特征研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
为获得室内空气颗粒物污染特征,2009年8月18~24日在某单位工作及生活区选取4个室内点和1个室外点进行颗粒物采样和成分分析.结果表明,室内粗颗粒(PM10)符合<室内空气质量标准>(GB/T 18883-2002),而细粒子(PM2.5)的浓度水平较高,表明室内PM2.5的污染较重;室内与室外PM2.5比值显示,P...  相似文献   
5.
以河流近域土地利用构成与水环境质量间定量关系为研究对象,基于巢湖流域40个水质监测断面和320个河流近域作用区,运用GIS空间分析功能计算不同尺度作用区内土地利用构成,借助相关分析、冗余分析(RDA)等数理统计手段,分析土地利用构成与水质指数间的相关关系;并分析和比较了流域内山区和平原地区土地利用构成与水质之间关系。结果表明,巢湖流域近河道地区土地利用构成对各水质指数有重要影响,且受地形因素影响。其中,建设用地对河流水质恶化具有明显作用;河流沿岸林地布局能显著改善水质,尤其是对氨氮和高锰酸盐指数敏感;耕地面积变化与水质相关性不显著。RDA冗余分析证实了不同尺度下的土地利用类型对水环境影响具有尺度效应。研究成果对巢湖流域水环境管理具有重要的实际指导意义,并为同类研究提供借鉴  相似文献   
6.
矿山地质环境质量评价数学模型研究概述   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
刘金涛  冯文凯  胥良  吕键 《灾害学》2011,(4):110-115
在对大量文献和典型矿山地质调查资料研究的基础上,从矿山环境地质问题所导致的结果(资源损毁、地质灾害、环境污染)出发,筛选出合理的评价因子并建立评价指标体系.采用不同的评价方法,通过进行现状—预测—综合评价最终确定矿山地质环境质量评价数学模型;并将评价方法应用于实际矿山地质环境质量评价中,获得了较好的一致性.  相似文献   
7.
Environmental Agencies require Decision Support Systems, in order to plan Air Quality Policies considering the cost of emission reduction measures and the human health effects (with related social costs). The use of Decision Support Systems is also useful to spread information to general public, explaining the effectiveness of proposed air quality plans. In this paper, a multi-objective approach to control PM10 concentration at a regional level is presented. The problem considers both the internal costs (due to the implementation of emission reduction measures) and the external costs (due to population exposure to high PM10 concentrations). To model PM10 concentrations, a single surrogate model is used for the entire domain, allowing the implementation of a very efficient optimization procedure. The surrogate model is derived through a set of 10 simulations, performed using a Chemistry Transport Model fed with different emission reduction scenarios. The methodology is applied to Northern Italy, a region affected by very high PM10 concentrations that exceed the limit values specified by the EU legislation.  相似文献   
8.
Growth and pollution convergence: Theory and evidence   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
Stabilizing pollution levels in the long run is a pre-requisite for sustainable growth. We develop a neoclassical growth model with endogenous emission reduction predicting that, along optimal sustainable paths, pollution growth rates are (i) positively related to output growth (scale effect) and (ii) negatively related to emission levels (defensive effect). This dynamic law reduces to a convergence equation that is empirically tested for two major and regulated air pollutants – sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides – with a panel of 25 European countries spanning the years 1980–2005. Traditional parametric models are rejected by the data. More flexible regression techniques confirm the existence of both the scale and the defensive effect, supporting the model predictions.  相似文献   
9.
反应性气体观测中标准气的误差问题及建议   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
林伟立  徐晓斌  张晓春 《环境化学》2011,30(6):1140-1143
通过制定严格的质量保证和质量控制措施,在实验室对不同的国产标准气与同一的具有NIST标准的进口标准气进行定量比对.结果发现,国内不同厂家生产及同一厂家生产不同批次的标准气,特别是SO2和NO标准气,其出厂浓度与比对后的浓度间存在较大的偏差.在所有比对结果中,有2/3的SO2标准气样品超过±5%的相对偏差,有1/3的SO...  相似文献   
10.
Abstract: Reintroduction of captive‐reared animals has become increasingly popular in recent decades as a conservation technique, but little is known of how demographic factors affect the success of reintroductions. We believe whether the increase in population persistence associated with reintroduction is sufficient to warrant the cost of rearing and relocating individuals should be considered as well. We examined the trade‐off between population persistence and financial cost of a reintroduction program for Crested Coots (Fulica cristata). This species was nearly extirpated from southern Europe due to unsustainable levels of hunting and reduction in amount and quality of habitat. We used a stochastic, stage‐based, single‐sex, metapopulation model with site‐specific parameters to examine the demographic effects of releasing juveniles or adults in each population for a range of durations. We parameterized the model with data from an unsuccessful reintroduction program in which juvenile captive‐bred Crested Coots were released between 2000 and 2009. Using economic data from the captive‐breeding program, we also determined whether the strategy that maximized abundance coincided with the least expensive strategy. Releasing adults resulted in slightly larger final abundance than the release of nonreproductive juveniles. Both strategies were equally poor in achieving a viable metapopulation, but releasing adults was 2–4 times more expensive than releasing juveniles. To obtain a metapopulation that would be viable for 30 years, fecundity in the wild would need to increase to the values observed in captivity and juvenile survival would need to increase to almost unity. We suggest that the most likely way to increase these vital rates is by increasing habitat quality at release sites.  相似文献   
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