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1.
鞍山市大气尘和金属元素沉降通量及污染特征   总被引:4,自引:3,他引:1  
通过采集鞍山市11个点位的降尘样品以及土壤样品,用ICP-MS分析了Cu、Mn、Zn、Pb等元素含量,并计算其沉降通量。结果表明,鞍山地区大气降尘的沉降通量为2.92~59.8g/(m2.month),其中鞍钢厂区沉降通量均值为31.6g/(m2.month),分别是周边地区和对照地区的4.72倍和10.5倍。重金属As、Cr、Pb和Cd的沉降通量分别为3.78、45.5、42.8、0.457g/(hm2.month)。降尘中各元素的富集系数为0.29~190,其中Cu、Fe、Zn、Mo、Cd、Pb和Se的富集系数大于10,说明这些元素主要来自于人为源。鞍钢厂区土壤中Cu、Pb、Mn、Zn、Mo、Cd、Ca、Fe和Se的含量较辽宁省土壤背景值高,说明其土壤环境已经受到了人类活动的影响。  相似文献
2.
Quantification of the forest water flux provides valuable information for the understanding of forest ecosystem functioning. As such, throughfall (and stemflow to a lesser extent) has been frequently measured. Although throughfall collection may seem relatively simple, the requirements to obtain reliable estimates are often underestimated. This review addresses the criteria to take into account when working out the sampling procedure, from the selection of equipment to implementation in the field. Sound sampling of the forest water flux is difficult due to its high spatial and temporal variation. The high costs entailed by the ideal sampling design often prohibit its implementation. Different procedures are available, some of which are compromises between the aim of the study (monitoring or experimental study, short or long term objectives, absolute or relative estimates, quality of the assessment to be achieved) and the available means.  相似文献
3.
Quantification of the forest water flux provides valuable information for the understanding of forest ecosystem functioning. As such, throughfall (and stemflow to a lesser extent) has been frequently measured. Although throughfall collection may seem relatively simple, the requirements to obtain reliable estimates are often underestimated. This review addresses the criteria to take into account when working out the sampling procedure, from the selection of equipment to implementation in the field. Sound sampling of the forest water flux is difficult due to its high spatial and temporal variation. The high costs entailed by the ideal sampling design often prohibit its implementation. Different procedures are available, some of which are compromises between the aim of the study (monitoring or experimental study, short or long term objectives, absolute or relative estimates, quality of the assessment to be achieved) and the available means.  相似文献
4.
冶炼厂周边区域夏季大气Cu和Cd沉降特征   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
为了解贵溪冶炼厂周边农田区域夏季大气重金属沉降状况,于2012年6—8月及2013年6—8月(夏季),设置8个监测点,共收集大气干湿混合样品48个,采用原子吸收分光光度法分析了Cu、Cd.结果发现,冶炼厂周边区域2012年夏季Cu、Cd沉降通量分别为42.5~421、1.01~5.06 mg/m2,平均值149、2.02 mg/m2;2013年夏季Cu、Cd沉降通量分别为40.6~94.3、0.12~0.44 mg/m2,平均值59.4、0.26 mg/m2.同1月份不同监测点Cu、Cd沉降量存在一定差异性,风向为造成该差异性的主要气象因素;不同监测点Cu、Cd月沉降通量与风向频率均具有显著相关性(r均大于0.60).降雨量影响Cu、Cd月沉降量,Cu、Cd平均月沉降量与降雨量均呈显著相关关系(r=0.91、r=0.87,P<0.05).  相似文献
5.
Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) bark was collected in thirty-seven localities in the Thrace region, Turkey, for the determination of airborne toxic metal distribution. Five toxic metals, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, were monitored using atomic absorption spectrometry. Distribution maps of toxic elements in the region were plotted according to Geographic Information System technology. In general, the concentrations of all investigated elements were not high in the region apart from the vicinity of big cities, Tekirdag, Istanbul and, close to Bulgarian border. However, the highest concentrations were not at pollution level. They have a similar distribution pattern throughout the region.  相似文献
6.
Atmospheric deposition of the major elements was estimated from throughfall and bulk deposition measurements on 13 plots of the Swiss Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research (LWF) between 1995 and 2001. Independent estimates of the wet and dry deposition of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) on these same plots were gained from combined simplified models. The highest deposition fluxes were measured at Novaggio (Southern Switzerland), exposed to heavy air pollution originating from the Po Plain, with throughfall fluxes averaging 29 kg ha–1 a–1 for N and 15 kg ha–1 a–1 for S. Low deposition fluxes were measured on the plots above 1800 m, with throughfall fluxes lower than 4.5 kg ha–1 a–1 for N and lower than 3 kg ha–1 a–1 for S. The wet deposition of N and S derived from bulk deposition was close to the modeled wet deposition, but the dry deposition derived from throughfall was significantly lower than the modeled dry deposition for both compounds. However, both the throughfall method and the model yielded total deposition estimates of N which exceeded the critical loads calculated on the basis of long-term mass balance considerations. These estimates were within or above the range of empirical critical loads except above 1800 m.  相似文献
7.
Monitoring of Wilderness lakes for potential acidification requires information on lake sensitivity to acidification. Catchment properties can be used to estimate the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of lakes. Conceptual and general linear models were developed to predict the ANC of lakes in high-elevation (2170 m) Wilderness Areas in Californias Sierra Nevada mountains. Catchment-to-lake area ratio, lake perimeter-to-area ratio, bedrock lithology, vegetation cover, and lake headwater location are significant variables explaining ANC. The general linear models were validated against independently collected water chemistry data and were used as part of a first stage screen to identify Wilderness lakes with low ANC. Expanded monitoring of atmospheric deposition is essential for improving the predictability of lake ANC.  相似文献
8.
The presence of several anthropogenic chemicals has been documented in the atmosphere of the Canadian prairies. The deposition of these chemicals as a mixture is of importancesince little is known of the combined effects of these chemicalson aquatic organisms. This study was designed to evaluate theacute and chronic toxicity of a complex mixture of nineatmospherically transported pesticides to Ceriodaphniadubia. The nine selected pesticides (bromoxynil, dicamba, 2,4-D,MCPA, triallate, trifluralin, pentachlorophenol, lindane, and4,4-DDT) were detected in appreciable quantities in dryatmospheric deposits. The concentration of each pesticide in themixture was based on maximum measured daily dry deposition ratesfor central Canada, except for pentachlorophenol, which wasestimated based on atmospheric concentrations. The 48-h LC50estimate for C. dubia exposed to the pesticide mixture was174.60 g L-1 (340 times the measured total dry deposition concentration). The estimated NOEC and LOEC for bothsurvival and reproduction, as determined in the 7-d chronic toxicity test, were 51.3 (100 times) and 154 g L-1 (300 times), respectively. A basic risk assessment, using the toxic unit approach, suggested that the toxicity of the pesticide mixture was mainly due to 4,4-DDT. Overall, this atmospherically transported complex mixture of pesticides appearsto pose a negligible toxicological risk to non-target aquatic invertebrates such as zooplankton.  相似文献
9.
通过在2012年5月-2013年4月1个周期年内,对修复基地和对照点每月大气降尘中铅、镉、砷沉降量的监测,结果表明:修复基地大气降尘中铅、镉、砷含量明显较对照点高,年总沉降量分别是对照点的17.6倍、16.3倍和14.1倍,表明铅冶炼企业对基地大气降尘中铅、镉、砷含量影响显著;大气降尘中铅、镉、砷沉降量受位置和时间影响较大,在相距不到100 m的测点间,沉降量相差1倍以上,冬季主导风明显、地面植被少、二次扬尘大,使处于铅冶炼企业下风向的基地降尘中铅、镉、砷沉降量较大。沉降量时空不均匀与土壤污染不均匀现状一致,也验证了铅冶炼企业是基地大气和土壤重金属污染的主要来源。以降尘缸模拟土壤进行测算,结果表明大气降尘中镉对土壤污染速度最快,风险最大。  相似文献
10.
Sulfate () concentrations and fluxes were studied for multiple storm events in the Point Peter Brook watershed, a glaciated, forested watershed located in Western New York, USA. Investigations were performed across one large (696 ha) and three small (1.6–3.4 ha) catchments with varying extent of riparian and wetland areas. Concentrations of in groundwater sources (mean values: 238–910 μmolc L−1) were considerably greater than concentrations recorded for rainfall (60 μmolc L−1) and throughfall (72–129 μmolc L−1). Seasonality in concentrations was most pronounced for valley-bottom riparian waters with maximum concentrations in late winter–spring (February–March) and a minimum in late summer (August). Concentrations of in wetland water were considerably less than riparian water indicating the likelihood of reduction in anoxic wetland conditions. Storm events displayed a dilution pattern in concentrations with a minimum coinciding with the maximum in throughfall contributions. End member mixing analysis (EMMA) was able to predict the storm event concentrations of for four of the six comparisons. Concentrations of at the outlet of the large (696 ha) catchment were much greater than values recorded for the smaller catchments. Exports of in streamflow exceeded the inputs from atmospheric deposition suggesting that watersheds like Point Peter Brook may not show any immediate response to decreases in atmospheric deposition.  相似文献
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