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1.
Total captures, species richness, diversity, and assemblages of adult carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a boreal mixed-wood ecosystem study were compared among unharvested, and clear-cut plots untreated or treated with herbicides (Vision® and Release®), mechanical treatments (brush saw and Silvana Selective). Carabids were sampled using unbaited pitfall traps for one growing season 7 and 9 years after clear-cutting, in the second growing season after competition control was applied. A total of 5032 individuals representing 30 species were collected between June 1 and September 25, 1995. Total catches were not affected by the harvest or the conifer release alternatives applied. Species richness and diversity increased following conifer release alternatives. Ten species showed habitat preferences after treatment whereas the remaining 20 species were not significantly affected by treatment.  相似文献
2.
Total captures, species richness, diversity, and assemblages of adult carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a boreal mixed-wood ecosystem study were compared among unharvested, and clear-cut plots untreated or treated with herbicides (Vision® and Release®), mechanical treatments (brush saw and Silvana Selective). Carabids were sampled using unbaited pitfall traps for one growing season 7 and 9 years after clear-cutting, in the second growing season after competition control was applied. A total of 5032 individuals representing 30 species were collected between June 1 and September 25, 1995. Total catches were not affected by the harvest or the conifer release alternatives applied. Species richness and diversity increased following conifer release alternatives. Ten species showed habitat preferences after treatment whereas the remaining 20 species were not significantly affected by treatment.  相似文献
3.
Knowledge of the spatial distribution of plant species is essential to conservation and forest managers in order to identify high priority areas such as vulnerable species and habitats, and designate areas for reserves, refuges and other protected areas. A reliable map of the diversity of plant species over the landscape is an invaluable tool for such purposes. In this study, the number of species, the exponent Shannon and the reciprocal Simpson indices, calculated from 141 quadrat sites sampled in a tropical forest were used to compare the performance of several spatial interpolation techniques used to prepare a map of plant diversity, starting from sample (point) data over the landscape. Means of mapped classes, inverse distance functions, kriging and co-kriging, both, applied over the entire studied landscape and also applied within vegetation classes, were the procedures compared. Significant differences in plant diversity indices between classes demonstrated the usefulness of boundaries between vegetation types, mapped through satellite image classification, in stratifying the variability of plant diversity over the landscape. These mapped classes, improved the accuracy of the interpolation methods when they were used as prior information for stratification of the area. Spatial interpolation by co-kriging performed among the poorest interpolators due to the poor correlation between the plant diversity variables and vegetation indices computed by remote sensing and used as covariables. This indicated that the latter are not suitable covariates of plant diversity indices. Finally, a within-class kriging interpolator yielded the most accurate estimates of plant diversity values. This interpolator not only provided the most accurate estimates by accounting for the indices' intra-class variability, but also provided additional useful interpretations of the structure of spatial variability of diversity values through the interpretation of their semi-variograms. This additional role was found very useful in aiding decisions in conservation planning.  相似文献
4.
江苏地表水体大型底栖无脊椎动物生物多样性状况研究   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
大型底栖无脊椎动物群落结构与水体水质和水生态系统健康状况关系密切,其受外界干扰后群落结构的变化趋势可以反映水体受污染的性质和程度。2008年,对江苏省主要饮用水源地,长江、京杭大运河等主要河流及太湖等重点湖泊开展底栖动物调查与评价研究,共设置调查点位154个。江苏主要饮用水源地底栖动物的物种数量为78种,主要河流发现底栖动物96种,主要湖泊底栖动物发现65种。从物种多样性指数评价结果看,主要湖泊的底栖生物多样性状况优于地表水源地和主要河流,丰富和较丰富所占比例合计达58%;主要河流的评价结果最差,丰富和较丰富所占比例合计仅达30.7%,存在11.3%物种多样性极贫乏的点位,且大部分水体底栖动物组成以耐污种为主,优势种为极耐污的霍甫水丝蚓,水质状况劣于饮用水源地和主要湖泊。  相似文献
5.
The lakes in KillarneyProvincial Park, located 40–60 km southwest ofSudbury, Ontario, were some of the first lakesin North America to be acidified by atmosphericpollutants. Acidification affected thousandsof fish and invertebrate populations in dozensof lakes. Since the 1970's, water quality hasimproved in response to atmospheric pollutionreductions and some lakes have alreadyrecovered to approximately their pre-industrialpH levels, as inferred from diatom microfossilsin lake sediments. Since the 1970's, fishspecies richness has not changed substantially,but zooplankton species richness has increasedin acidified lakes. The critical sulphur load,the amount of SO2-derived acid depositionthat can occur while still maintaining suitable water quality, was estimated to beexceeded in 38% of the park area in 1997. Depending on which of four possible NorthAmerican emission control scenarios (CLR =currently legislated reduction; CLR + 25%; CLR+ 50%; CLR + 75%) is achieved by 2010, theprojected critical loads will be exceeded inabout 0-30% of the park area in the future. There are many factors that can affectbiological recovery rates of damaged lakes, butit is expected that biological recovery willlag considerably behind observed chemicalrecovery rates.  相似文献
6.
The Impact of Climate Change on Mammal Diversity in Canada   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Current large-scale mammalian diversity patterns in Canada can be accurately explained using various measurements of heat energy. Unfortunately, climatic change is predicted to alter the fundamental climatic basis for contemporary diversity gradients, with the expected consequence that much of the Canadian biota will need to migrate in order to remain within climatically suitable regions. We make predictions regarding future mammal diversity patterns in Canada, and therefore provide a preliminary indication of where management intervention should be directed in order to conserve mammal diversity as climate changes. We also examine the current distributions of individual mammal species in Canada in order to determine which taxa cannot migrate farther north because of the Arctic Ocean barrier. Of the 25 species that fall into this category, we examine the predicted loss of habitat in one keystone species – Dicrostonyx groenlandicus, the collared lemming – and find that this taxon is likely to lose approximately 60% of its habitat with unpredictable but likely detrimental consequences for the arctic biota. We discuss the implications of our findings briefly.  相似文献
7.
Atmospheric Change and Biodiversity in the Arctic   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
The Canadian Arctic is characterized by a high variation in landform types and there are complex interactions between land, water and the atmosphere which dramatically affect the distribution of biota. Biodiversity depends upon the intensity, predictability and scale of these interactions. Observations, as well as predictions of large-scale climate models which include ocean circulation, reveal an anomalous cooling of northeastern Canada in recent decades, in contrast to the overall significant increase in average annual temperature in the Northern Hemisphere. Predictions from models are necessary to forecast the change in the treeline in the 21st century which may lead to a major loss of tundra. The rate of change in vegetation in response to climate change is poorly understood. The treeline in central Canada, for example, is showing infilling with trees, and in some locations, northerly movement of the boundary. The presence of sea ice in Hudson Bay and other coastal areas is a major factor affecting interactions between the marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Loss of ice and therefore hunting of seals by polar bears will reduce bear and arctic fox populations within the region. In turn, this is likely to have significant effects on their herbivorous prey populations and forage plants. Further, the undersurface of sea ice is a major site for the growth of algae and marine invertebrates which in turn act as food for the marine food web. A rise in sea-level may flood coastal saltmarsh communities leading to changes in plant assemblages and a decline in foraging by geese and other consumers. The anomalous cooling in the eastern Arctic, primarily in late winter and early spring, has interrupted northern migration of breeding populations of geese and ducks and led to increased damage to vegetation in southern arctic saltmarshes as a result of foraging. It is likely that there has been a significant loss of invertebrates in those areas where the vegetation has been destroyed. Warming will have major effects on permafrost distribution and on ground-ice resulting in a major destabilization of slopes and slumping of soil, and disruption of tundra plant communities. Disruption of peat and moss surfaces lead to loss of insulation, an increase in active-layer depth and changes in drainage and plant assemblages. Increases of UV-B radiation will strongly affect vulnerable populations of both plants and animals. The indigenous peoples will face major changes in life style, edibility of food and health standards, if there is a significant warming trend. The great need is for information which is sensitive to the changes and will assist in developing an understanding of the complex interactions of the arctic biota, human populations and the physical environment.  相似文献
8.
The Impact of Climate Change on Mammal Diversity in Canada   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Current large-scale mammalian diversity patterns in Canada can be accurately explained using various measurements of heat energy. Unfortunately, climatic change is predicted to alter the fundamental climatic basis for contemporary diversity gradients, with the expected consequence that much of the Canadian biota will need to migrate in order to remain within climatically suitable regions. We make predictions regarding future mammal diversity patterns in Canada, and therefore provide a preliminary indication of where management intervention should be directed in order to conserve mammal diversity as climate changes. We also examine the current distributions of individual mammal species in Canada in order to determine which taxa cannot migrate farther north because of the Arctic Ocean barrier. Of the 25 species that fall into this category, we examine the predicted loss of habitat in one keystone species – Dicrostonyx groenlandicus, the collared lemming – and find that this taxon is likely to lose approximately 60% of its habitat with unpredictable but likely detrimental consequences for the arctic biota. We discuss the implications of our findings briefly.  相似文献
9.
Atmospheric Change and Biodiversity in the Arctic   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
The Canadian Arctic is characterized by a high variation in landform types and there are complex interactions between land, water and the atmosphere which dramatically affect the distribution of biota. Biodiversity depends upon the intensity, predictability and scale of these interactions. Observations, as well as predictions of large-scale climate models which include ocean circulation, reveal an anomalous cooling of northeastern Canada in recent decades, in contrast to the overall significant increase in average annual temperature in the Northern Hemisphere. Predictions from models are necessary to forecast the change in the treeline in the 21st century which may lead to a major loss of tundra. The rate of change in vegetation in response to climate change is poorly understood. The treeline in central Canada, for example, is showing infilling with trees, and in some locations, northerly movement of the boundary. The presence of sea ice in Hudson Bay and other coastal areas is a major factor affecting interactions between the marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Loss of ice and therefore hunting of seals by polar bears will reduce bear and arctic fox populations within the region. In turn, this is likely to have significant effects on their herbivorous prey populations and forage plants. Further, the undersurface of sea ice is a major site for the growth of algae and marine invertebrates which in turn act as food for the marine food web. A rise in sea-level may flood coastal saltmarsh communities leading to changes in plant assemblages and a decline in foraging by geese and other consumers. The anomalous cooling in the eastern Arctic, primarily in late winter and early spring, has interrupted northern migration of breeding populations of geese and ducks and led to increased damage to vegetation in southern arctic saltmarshes as a result of foraging. It is likely that there has been a significant loss of invertebrates in those areas where the vegetation has been destroyed. Warming will have major effects on permafrost distribution and on ground-ice resulting in a major destabilization of slopes and slumping of soil, and disruption of tundra plant communities. Disruption of peat and moss surfaces lead to loss of insulation, an increase in active-layer depth and changes in drainage and plant assemblages. Increases of UV-B radiation will strongly affect vulnerable populations of both plants and animals. The indigenous peoples will face major changes in life style, edibility of food and health standards, if there is a significant warming trend. The great need is for information which is sensitive to the changes and will assist in developing an understanding of the complex interactions of the arctic biota, human populations and the physical environment.  相似文献
10.
山东省生物多样性试点评价   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1  
以县级行政区域为评价单元,利用现有文献资料和补充调查数据,按照《区域生物多样性评价标准》(HJ 623—2011)规定的评价指标和方法,评价了山东省120个县级行政区域的生物多样性状况,分析了生物多样性状况空间分布规律。评价结果表明:山东省县级行政区域生物多样性指数在23.27~40.24之间变化,县级行政区域生物多样性状况分为"中"和"一般",分别占山东省土地总面积的55.8%和44.2%。鲁中南山地丘陵区和鲁东丘陵区的生物多样性状况好于黄河三角洲、鲁西北和鲁西南平原区。  相似文献
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