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《Environmental Forensics》2013,14(4):313-317
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was investigated to evaluate its potential for obtaining high quality chromatographic fingerprints from soils encountered in environmental investigations. While the volatile and semivolatile fractions of light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) samples can be “fingerprinted” in a single chromatographic run, it is commonly not possible to obtain samples of LNAPL in the locations of interest. For this and other reasons, it was desirable to develop this method (SFE) of soil extraction, which allows chromatographic fingerprinting of the same quality routinely obtained with LNAPL so that environmental forensic investigations could be extended to areas beyond those containing LNAPL in monitoring wells. In this study, SFE was compared to conventional dichloromethane extraction. Both artificially spiked soil and soil from petroleum release sites were tested. Since water can be a problem when using the SFE method, particular attention was given to handling soils with high moisture contents. The SFE extracts showed excellent retention of low molecular components, including pentanes. Gas chromatography of SFE extracts yielded molecular distributions that showed no significant bias toward either low or high molecular weight components. These results show that SFE can be used to obtain an unbiased, single-run chromatographic “fingerprint” of both volatile and semivolatile hydrocarbons in contaminated soil samples.  相似文献   
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Using solid state 13C NMR data and elemental composition in a molecular mixing model, we estimated the molecular components of the organic matter in 16 recycled organic (RO) wastes representative of the major materials generated in the Sydney basin area. Close correspondence was found between the measured NMR signal intensities and those predicted by the model for all RO wastes except for poultry manure char. Molecular nature of the organic matter differed widely between the RO wastes. As a proportion of organic C, carbohydrate C ranged from 0.07 to 0.63, protein C from <0.01 to 0.66, lignin C from <0.01 to 0.31, aliphatic C from 0.09 to 0.73, carbonyl C from 0.02 to 0.23, and char C from 0 to 0.45. This method is considered preferable to techniques involving imprecise extraction methods for RO wastes. Molecular composition data has great potential as a predictor of RO waste soil carbon and nutrient outcomes.  相似文献   
4.
Bacterial diversity of full scale rotary drum composter from biodegradable organic waste samples were analyzed through two different approaches, i.e., Culture dependent and independent techniques. Culture-dependent enumerations for indigenous population of bacterial isolates mainly total heterotrophic bacteria (Bacillus species, Pseudomonas species and Enterobacter species), Fecal Coliforms, Fecal Streptococci, Escherichia coli, Salmonella species and Shigella species showed reduction during the composting period. On the other hand, Culture-independent method using PCR amplification of specific 16S rRNA sequences identified the presence of Acinetobacter species, Actinobacteria species, Bacillus species, Clostridium species, Hydrogenophaga species, Butyrivibrio species, Pedobacter species, Empedobactor species and Flavobacterium species by sequences clustering in the phylogenetic tree. Furthermore, correlating physico-chemical analysis of samples with bacterial diversity revealed the bacterial communities have undergone changes, possibly linked to the variations in temperature and availability of new metabolic substrates while decomposing organics at different stages of composting.  相似文献   
5.
我国油田多采用絮凝剂处理含油污水。为得到高效、廉价的絮凝剂,使用赤泥最优化制备聚合氯化铝铁。通过化学分析法和X射线衍射分析,得出赤泥中铝﹑铁元素含量。正交实验结果表明:影响Fe溶出的因素由强到弱依次为盐酸用量系数﹑反应温度﹑目数和反应时间,最佳浸出条件为目数80~120、液固比5.5、反应温度95℃、反应时间3.5h。  相似文献   
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This paper examines how local communities adapt to climate change and how governance structures can foster or undermine adaptive capacity. Climate change policies, in general, and disaster risk management in mountain regions, in particular, are characterised by their multi-level and multi-sectoral nature during formulation and implementation. The involvement of numerous state and non-state actors at local to national levels produces a variety of networks of interaction and communication. The paper argues that the structure of these relational patterns is critical for understanding adaptive capacity. It thus proposes an expanded concept of adaptive capacity that incorporates (horizontal and vertical) actor integration and communication flow between these actors. The paper further advocates the use of formal social network analysis to assess these relational patterns. Preliminary results from research on adaptation to climate change in a Swiss mountain region vulnerable to floods and other natural hazards illustrate the conceptual and empirical significance of the main arguments.  相似文献   
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This paper presents a novel quantitative risk analysis process for urban natural gas pipeline networks using geographical information systems (GIS). The process incorporates an assessment of failure rates of integrated pipeline networks, a quantitative analysis model of accident consequences, and assessments of individual and societal risks. Firstly, the failure rates of the pipeline network are calculated using empirical formulas influenced by parameters such as external interference, corrosion, construction defects, and ground movements. Secondly, the impacts of accidents due to gas leakage, diffusion, fires, and explosions are analyzed by calculating the area influenced by poisoning, burns, and deaths. Lastly, based on the previous analyses, individual risks and social risks are calculated. The application of GIS technology helps strengthen the quantitative risk analysis (QRA) model and allows construction of a QRA system for urban gas pipeline networks that can aid pipeline management staff in demarcating high risk areas requiring more frequent inspections.  相似文献   
8.
Zardari, Noor ul Hassan, Ian Cordery, and Ashish Sharma, 2010. An Objective Multiattribute Analysis Approach for Allocation of Scarce Irrigation Water Resources. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 46(2):412-428. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2009.00410.x Abstract: In this study, end user (farmer) and decision maker (water allocator) opinions were surveyed and a conjoint analysis (CA) based method was applied to the quantitative and qualitative data to assess the utility associated with each attribute that plays a role in forming the final thinking of the water users. The application of CA for estimating the utility for each attribute level is a novel approach, which helps provide a formal, objective basis for assigning relative scales for each attribute interval within a multiattribute decision-making model. The utilities (part-worths) obtained from the CA have a cardinal scale and were found to be comparable within and across the attributes. A farmers’ survey on five water allocation attributes was completed from 62 farmers and their opinions on the relative importance of attributes were elicited for a subarea of the Indus River Basin. The CA method was then applied to the survey data and the utilities for each attribute level were determined. This allowed, for instance, decisions to be made, which take account of the perceived value of the water and of the availability of local labor to work on the farm. Finally, these interval scales were used within the specification of the ELECTRE multiattribute decision-making method to provide a complete and objective ranking of nine irrigation districts so that the best decisions on water allocation could be made.  相似文献   
9.
House-Peters, Lily, Bethany Pratt, and Heejun Chang, 2010. Effects of Urban Spatial Structure, Sociodemographics, and Climate on Residential Water Consumption in Hillsboro, Oregon. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 46(3):461-472. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2009.00415.x Abstract: In the Portland metropolitan area, suburban growth in cities such as Hillsboro is projected to increase as people seek affordable housing near a burgeoning metropolis. The most significant determinants for increases in water demand are population growth, climate change, and the type of urban development that occurs. This study analyzes the spatial patterns of single family residential (SFR) water consumption in Hillsboro, Oregon, at the census block scale. The following research questions are addressed: (1) What are the significant determinants of SFR water consumption in Hillsboro, Oregon? (2) Is SFR water demand sensitive to drought conditions and interannual climate variation? (3) To what magnitude do particular census blocks react to drought conditions and interannual climate variation? Using ordinary least squares multiple regression and spatial regression methods, we found that base use, representing indoor water use, is dependent on household size and that seasonal use, representing external water use is dependent on both education level and the size of the property’s outdoor space. Spatial analysis techniques determined that although the water demand of the study area as a whole is not sensitive to drought conditions, certain individual census blocks do respond with a higher magnitude of water use. The most climate-sensitive census blocks tend to contain newer and larger homes, and have higher property values and more affluent and well-educated residents.  相似文献   
10.
Frey, Ashley E., Francisco Olivera, Jennifer L. Irish, Lauren M. Dunkin, James M. Kaihatu, Celso M. Ferreira, and Billy L. Edge, 2010. Potential Impact of Climate Change on Hurricane Flooding Inundation, Population Affected and Property Damages in Corpus Christi. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 1–11. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2010.00475.x Abstract: The effect of climate change on storm-surge flooding and the implications for population and structural damages on the city of Corpus Christi, Texas, was investigated. The study considered the influence of sea level rise and hurricane intensification, both influenced by climate change. Combinations of future carbon dioxide equivalent emission rates and carbon dioxide doubling sensitivities, based on findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, were considered to define future climate scenarios. A suite of physically based numerical models for hurricane winds and the resulting waves, surge, and morphological change at the coast were used to determine flooded areas, population affected, and property damages for Hurricanes Bret, Beulah, and a version of Carla shifted south from its original track, under present and predicted future climate conditions. A comparison of the economic damages for current climate conditions and for the 2080s climate scenario shows that, for Carla (shifted), there will be an increase in the range of $270-1,100 million; for Beulah, of $100-390 million; and, for Bret, of $30-280 million. A similar analysis was also conducted for 2030s predicted climate scenarios. Overall, the comparison of the results for the different climate conditions indicates what the destructive consequences of climate change could be, even within the somewhat short time frame of 80 years considered here.  相似文献   
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