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1.
环境监测数据分析和监测网设计中SPSS 10.0的应用   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5       下载免费PDF全文
SPSS10.0是目前功能齐全、便于应用的优秀统计软件。文章介绍了该软件在环境监测数据分析和监测网设计中的应用。文中简述了该软件的功能及优点,并通过实例,展示其在环境监测数据分析和监测网设计中的应用,这对于优化监测数据分析结果和监测网的设计均有较好的借鉴作用。  相似文献
2.
关于加强环境监测顶层设计的思考   总被引:4,自引:4,他引:0  
以管理学的视角,提出为应对生态文明建设和环境管理转型对环境监测提出的新要求新任务,环境监测系统应以创新监测机构设置模式、优化监测网络功能格局、引导市场化趋势为重点,进一步加强自上而下的顶层设计,理顺环境监测管理体制与运行机制,更好的发挥环境监测技术支持与服务作用。  相似文献
3.
一体化生活污水处理构筑物的设计思路与实践   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
根据生活水一体化处理设备的原理及构思,将通用设备替代为组合的一体化构筑物形式,应用于生活污水处理中,取得了良好的经济效果和较优的技术稳定性,达到了水处理单元优化设计的目的。  相似文献
4.
According to EC regulations the deliberate release of genetically modified (GM) crops into the agro-environment needs to be accompanied by environmental monitoring to detect potential adverse effects, e.g.unacceptable levels of gene flow from GM to non-GM crops, or adverse effects on single species or species groups thus reducing biodiversity. There is, however, considerable scientific and public debate on how GM crops should be monitored with sufficient accuracy, discussing questions of potential adverse effects, agro-environmental variables or indicators to be monitored and respective detection methods; Another basic component, the appropriate number and location of monitoring sites, is hardly considered. Currently, no consistent GM crop monitoring approach combines these components systematically. This study focuses on and integrates spatial agro-environmental aspects at a landscape level in order to design monitoring networks. Based on examples of environmental variables associated with the cropping of Bt-Maize (Zea maize L.), herbicide-tolerant (HT) winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), HT sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), and starch-modified potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), we develop a transferable framework and assessment scheme that comprises anticipated adverse environmental effects, variables to be measured and monitoring methods.These we integrate with a rule-based GIS (geographic information system) analysis, applying widely available spatial area and point information from existing environmental networks. This is used todevelop scenarios with optimised regional GM crop monitoring networks.  相似文献
5.
累积影响监测系统初步设计   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
累积影响监测和适应性管理是减少和改善累积影响评价不确定性的重要途径之一。文章初步探讨了累积影响监测的概念,提出了累积影响监测系统的设计原则,从内容、时空范围、监测指标、监测结果的表达、实施机构、实施程序等多方面对累积影响监测系统进行了初步探讨。  相似文献
6.
用顶空进样-毛细管气相色谱法测定水中甲醇,实验结果受到顶空条件影响因素较多。本文使用正交试验方法对顶空进样的加盐量、炉温、恒温时间等5个因素进行了优化,确定了顶空进样气相色谱法测定水中甲醇的最佳操作条件,配合DB-624石英毛细管柱和氢火焰离子化检测器,检出限可达到0.33mg/L。用本方法选择实验条件更加科学合理,测定结果更加可靠。  相似文献
7.
国内外空气质量监测网络设计方法研究进展   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:0  
如何设计效率高、代表性好、目的性强的空气质量监测网络,是长期以来空气质量监测工作的难点与关键。随着环境管理水平的提高,环境空气质量监测网络的设计成为当前研究的热点之一,国内外很多学者对其进行了广泛的研究。文章对美国、欧盟和我国关于空气质量监测网络设计的规范进行了简要评述和比较分析,并参考国内外一些关于空气质量监测网络设计的研究和应用实例,对当前主要的设计方法及应用进展进行了综述。  相似文献
8.
Little is known about the importance of landscape and land cover to the implementation and performance of agricultural conservation projects designed to improve stream quality. In our study, we addressed the potential importance of landscape and land cover to conservation projects by measuring variation across 191 μ-basins (100–2400 ha) and integrating the observed variation into a study design aimed at determining the effectiveness of conservation projects. Our findings indicate that there are strong gradients across which landscape and land cover attributes vary. Land cover varied along a gradient of agricultural intensity, basin morphometry across gradients of stream closure and basin size, basin substrate was described by variation in drumlin formation, glacial landform type, and soil drainage, while agricultural conservation projects varied according to the level of project implementation. Correlation of these gradients found several associations between landscape and land cover, indicating that agricultural intensity was being constrained predominantly by drumlin formation and glacial landform type. Landscape and land cover did not appear to be determining factors in the implementation of conservation projects by land owners. Based on these findings we chose 32 μ-basins which represented the variability along each of the defined gradients for further study. We conclude that landscape scale variables demonstrate important variation and covariation that can and should be integrated into study designs for the assessment of streams and human activities affecting streams.  相似文献
9.
Watershed-Based Survey Designs   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Watershed-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Section 303(d), and development of empirical relationships between causes or sources of impairment and biological responses. Creation of GIS databases for hydrography, hydrologically corrected digital elevation models, and hydrologic derivatives such as watershed boundaries and upstream–downstream topology of subcatchments would provide a consistent seamless nationwide framework for these designs. The elements of a watershed-based sample framework can be represented either as a continuous infinite set defined by points along a linear stream network, or as a discrete set of watershed polygons. Watershed-based designs can be developed with existing probabilistic survey methods, including the use of unequal probability weighting, stratification, and two-stage frames for sampling. Case studies for monitoring of Atlantic Coastal Plain streams, West Virginia wadeable streams, and coastal Oregon streams illustrate three different approaches for selecting sites for watershed-based survey designs.  相似文献
10.
地下水环境监测系统的设计   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
介绍了地下水环境监测的现状,特点和设计地下水环境监测系统的目的,详细阐述了地下水环境监测系统的站位布设,采样频率和时间分配,监测项目,以及地下水采样井的布设。  相似文献
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