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1.
天津市区PM2.5中碳组分污染特征及来源分析   总被引:15,自引:9,他引:6  
为研究天津市细颗粒中碳组分特征,于2006年8-12月连续采集PM25样品,分析其来源及浓度特征.结果表明,天津市区PM25、有机碳(OC)及元素碳(EC)浓度分别为165.90、23.90、5.50 μg/m3,3项浓度均为冬季最高.OC、EC、总碳在PM2.5中所占比例分别为14.31%、3.66%和18.14%,秋季在PM 2 5中所占比例最高,夏季最低.OC/EC平均值为4.21,按照秋、夏、冬呈递增的季节变化趋势.冬季二次有机碳污染较重,二次有机碳浓度(13.98 μg/m3)占OC比例为34.5%.因子分析表明,非采暖期汽油车对碳气溶胶作用显著,采暖期生物质燃烧、燃煤及汽油车排放贡献.  相似文献
2.
宁波市区冬季大气颗粒物及其主要组分的污染特征分析   总被引:6,自引:4,他引:2  
为了更好地研究影响宁波市区环境空气质量的污染物变化特征,于2010年1月20—30日进行了加强监测。研究结果表明,宁波市区大气中PM10和PM2.5质量浓度较高,其中PM2.5/PM10为0.5~0.85。对PM10和PM2.5采样膜分析,水溶性粒子和含碳组分分别占PM10和PM2.5质量浓度的56.7%和66.9%,其中二次污染的水溶性离子SO42-、NO3-和NH4+是PM10和PM2.5中浓度较高的离子组分;PM2.5样品中OC与EC的相关性较好,表明OC与EC的来源相对一致,可能主要来自机动车尾气的贡献;但PM10样品中OC与EC的相关性较差,表明其来源相对复杂;其中SOC的浓度占OC的13%~35%,说明宁波市区冬季导致二次污染的光化学反应不活跃。  相似文献
3.
APEC期间京津冀及周边地区PM2.5中碳组分变化特征及来源   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
在APEC会议期间和会期之后,分别采集北京、天津、石家庄、保定、济南5个采样点的PM2.5样品,通过分析碳组分的变化特征,研究京津冀地区污染物减排的影响以及减排后各指标的变化特征,分析大气颗粒物中碳气溶胶的可能来源。采用重量法测定组分中PM2.5的含量,利用热/光碳分析仪测定组分中OC、EC的含量,结果表明,由于采取了污染源减排措施,会议期间PM2.5、OC、EC的质量浓度均低于会期之后;会议期间和会期之后OC与EC均表现出了较好的相关性,r2为0.789~0.983,说明OC与EC的排放源基本相同;会议期间OC/EC为3.11~3.62,表明含碳气溶胶的来源主要是机动车排放,同时也存在一定的燃煤排放,会期之后为3.08~6.10,表明燃煤的排放在碳气溶胶中的比重明显增加,另外OC/EC也表明APEC会议期间和会期之后二次有机碳在各采样点均普遍存在。  相似文献
4.
生物综合毒性分析仪的毒性测试方法及适用范围研究   总被引:3,自引:2,他引:1  
比较研究了三种常用便携式生物综合毒性分析仪测定重金属及有机污染的灵敏度,初步提出了仪器使用注意事项及建议使用范围。结果表明,基于生物发光原理的Toxscreen-II和Deltatox仪器对重金属污染敏感,Toxscreen-II测得Hg、Cr(VI)、As的EC50值分别为0.0082、0.07、4.41mg/L;基于化学发光原理的Eclox对有机污染敏感,Eclox的EC50(苯酚)为1.21mg/L。鉴于综合毒性分析仪中等毒性检测限高于我国地表水标准限值,建议该类仪器更适用于环境污染事故中污染水体的毒性初筛判定。  相似文献
5.
南昌市环境监测站引进了一套降水自动监测系统,该系统由一个中心站及五台AR-107型自动监测仪(子站)组成。通过对AR-107型降水自动监测仪及手工样监测结果间的对比实验发现,自动监测与手工采样监测所获得的pH值和电导率值差异明显,并对这种差异进行了分析探讨,认为干沉降是这种差异存在的主要原因。  相似文献
6.
7.
In recent years, suspended particle pollution has become a serious problem in Taiwan. The carbonaceous materials EC and OC are play important roles in various atmospheric processes. The primary OC/EC ratio approach is applied to assess the contribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) to the PM2.5 and PM10 mass at the Taichung harbor sampling site. The results indicated that the average EC and OC concentration were 1.06 and 6.50 μg m−3, respectively, in fine particulate. And the average EC and OC concentration were 4.04 and 40.32 μg m−3, respectively, in coarse particulate at Taichung Harbor sampling site. In addition, and the average EC/OC rations was 8.72 in fine particle, respectively, at Taichung Harbor, Taiwan during summer and autumn period of 2005. The fine particle exhibited high particulate concentrations in October, and lower concentration particulate occurred in August. And in this study OC and EC concentrations in this study are compared with those in other cities. The results of EC and OC concentration in this study are also compare with those other cities.  相似文献
8.
To analyze polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at an urban site in Seoul, South Korea, 24-hr ambient air PM2.5 samples were collected during five intensive sampling periods between November 1998 and December 1999. To determine the PAH size distribution, 3-day size-segregated aerosol samples were also collected in December 1999. Concentrations of the 16 PAHs in the PM2.5 particles ranged from 3.9 to 119.9 ng m−3 with a mean of 24.3 ng m−3.An exceptionally high concentration of PAHs(∼120 ng m−3) observed during a haze event in December 1999 was likely influenced more by diesel vehicle exhaust than by gasoline exhaust, as well as air stagnation, as evidenced by the low carbon monoxide/elemental carbon (CO/EC) ratio of 205 found in this study and results reported by previous studies. The total PAHs associated with the size-segregated particles showed unimodal distributions. Compared to the unimodal size distributions of PAHs with modal peaks at < 0.12 μm measured in highway tunnels in Los Angeles (Venkataraman and Friedlander, 1994), four- to six-ring PAHs in our study had unimodal size distributions, peaking at the larger size range of 0.28–0.53 μm, suggesting the coagulation of freshly emitted ultrafine particles during transport to the sampling site. Further, the fraction of PAHs associated with coarse particles(> 1.8 μm) increased as the molecular weight of the PAHs decreased due to volatilization of fine particles followed by condensation onto coarse particles.  相似文献
9.
Levels of the oxidative DNA damage 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and catalase (CAT) activity were measured in the digestive gland and gills of clams Ruditapes decussatus, related to the presence of pollutants along Tunisian marine environment. Increased levels of CAT were observed in tissues of clams from all the sites studied, compared to control values, and elevated 8-oxodG levels were observed at specific sites. Results obtained in this work indicate that the measurement of 8-oxodG levels and CAT activity in tissues of R. decussatus is promising in pollution monitoring studies of the Tunisian marine environment.  相似文献
10.
采用离线分析法和在线分析法同步监测了武汉市PM_(2.5)中有机碳(OC)、元素碳(EC)和总碳(TC)的浓度,分析了2种方法的差别。结果表明,离线分析法与在线分析法对TC的测定结果具有很好的可比性,2种方法对TC的测定结果显著相关(r=0.970 9)。离线分析法得到的OC浓度普遍高于在线分析法,前者为后者的1.12倍,造成OC结果差异的主要原因可能是采样系统的差异。2种方法对EC测定的相关性较低(r=0.763 0),且2种方法对EC测定的精密度(相对偏差为13.14%)也不如其对TC和OC测定的精密度(相对偏差分别为3.42%和5.95%),造成EC结果差异的原因较复杂。离线分析法测得的OC/EC值明显高于在线分析法,鉴于OC/EC值在颗粒物源解析研究中具有重要意义,需要规范OC/EC分析方法。  相似文献
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