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The ecological and economic impacts associated with invasive species are of critical concern to land managers. The ability to map the extent and severity of invasions would be a valuable contribution to management decisions relating to control and monitoring efforts. We investigated the use of hyperspectral imagery for mapping invasive aquatic plant species in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in the Central Valley of California, at two spatial scales. Sixty-four flightlines of HyMap hyperspectral imagery were acquired over the study region covering an area of 2,139 km2 and field work was conducted to acquire GPS locations of target invasive species. We used spectral mixture analysis to classify two target invasive species; Brazilian waterweed (Egeria densa), a submerged invasive, and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a floating emergent invasive. At the relatively fine spatial scale for five sites within the Delta (average size 51 ha) average classification accuracies were 93% for Brazilian waterweed and 73% for water hyacinth. However, at the coarser, Delta-wide scale (177,000 ha) these accuracy results were 29% for Brazilian waterweed and 65% for water hyacinth. The difference in accuracy is likely accounted for by the broad range in water turbidity and tide heights encountered across the Delta. These findings illustrate that hyperspectral imagery is a promising tool for discriminating target invasive species within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta waterways although more work is needed to develop classification tools that function under changing environmental conditions.  相似文献
2.
River Yamuna, like most of the major rivers of India, has become increasingly polluted over the years from both point and non-point sources, particularly in the urban sectors such as Delhi. Field studies, conducted in January, 1994 have investigated the impact of wastewater discharges from four major drains (Najafgarh, Power House, Barapula, Kalkaji) on the overbanks, floodplains and Eichhornia in River Yamuna in Delhi, with particular reference to elemental contamination. It is concluded that except for Cd and Co, overall mean soil concentrations along the full stretch of the river in Delhi are within the world background levels of uncontaminated soils. However, the wastewater discharges from the drains, with the exception of Barapula drain, generally increase the elemental concentrations of overbank soils downstream of the discharges. Eichhornia plants growing along the banks receiving wastewaters from the Najafgarh and Barapula drains are unhealthy and reduced in population which can be attributed to a combination of alkaline pH of the growth medium, metal toxicity and high BOD at the site receiving effluents from the Najafgarh drain, and alkaline pH, metal toxicity and the turbid conditions of water with fly ash particle deposition on the plant surfaces at the site receiving effluents from the Barapula drain. Generally, considering the entire stretch of the river in Delhi, the roots of these plants growing on the overbank soils are found to be accumulators of all elements except Co, Al and Fe, with Co uptake being minimal. There are marked differences in elemental uptake of the water hyacinths growing on the overbanks and floodplains of the river.  相似文献
3.
Indraprastha Power Station (IPP Stn) and Rajghat Power House (RPH), owned by Delhi Electric Supply Undertaking, are both coal-fired power stations located on Ring Road in New Delhi. Ash content of the coal used ranges between 38–47%. The ash is collected in electrostatic precipitators which have an efficiency of 99.3% (IPP station), and 99.7% (RPH). There are instances of major dust pollution around the power stations from fly ash dispersal. The main method of disposal of fly ash from the power stations is by mixing with water, the resultant slurry is pumped through pipes to ash disposal ponds. The supernatant from these ponds is discharged into River Yamuna. Field studies have revealed large quantities of fly ash being deposited into the river. Local populations of Eichhornia crassipes have reduced dramatically between 1987–1995, with a marked reduction in the year 1994–1995. Field studies, conducted in January, 1995 have investigated the impact of fly ash dispersal in the Delhi region with particular reference to metal contamination. Elemental concentrations for a range of elements are determined by ICP-AES in fly ash and top soils along four transects from the power stations up to a distance of 8 km. The effects of fly ash leachates from the ash settling ponds on the river are determined by analyzing river overbank soils and vegetation for their elemental contents. It is concluded that fly ash dispersal from the stacks are a source of alkali, alkaline-earth and to some extent heavy metals in soils in the vicinity of the power stations, and enrichment of elements in river overbank soils are a result of discharge of fly ash leachates from ash disposal ponds. However, the impact from both these sources of metal contamination is not large enough to give cause for concern. Marked reduction in populations of Eichhornia crassipes downstream of the river where it receives leachates from the ash disposal ponds are attributed to turbidity of the ash pond leachates and metal toxicity. Elemental enrichment in the floodplain soils, as a result of fly ash particle deposition during monsoons, may enhance the horticultural value of these soils as is shown by a healthy cultivated crop of Brassica juncea.  相似文献
4.
Indraprastha Power Station (IPP Stn) and Rajghat Power House (RPH), owned by Delhi Electric Supply Undertaking, are both coal-fired power stations located on Ring Road in New Delhi. Ash content of the coal used ranges between 38–47%. The ash is collected in electrostatic precipitators which have an efficiency of 99.3% (IPP station), and 99.7% (RPH). There are instances of major dust pollution around the power stations from fly ash dispersal. The main method of disposal of fly ash from the power stations is by mixing with water, the resultant slurry is pumped through pipes to ash disposal ponds. The supernatant from these ponds is discharged into River Yamuna. Field studies have revealed large quantities of fly ash being deposited into the river. Local populations of Eichhornia crassipes have reduced dramatically between 1987–1995, with a marked reduction in the year 1994–1995. Field studies, conducted in January, 1995 have investigated the impact of fly ash dispersal in the Delhi region with particular reference to metal contamination. Elemental concentrations for a range of elements are determined by ICP-AES in fly ash and top soils along four transects from the power stations up to a distance of 8 km. The effects of fly ash leachates from the ash settling ponds on the river are determined by analyzing river overbank soils and vegetation for their elemental contents. It is concluded that fly ash dispersal from the stacks are a source of alkali, alkaline-earth and to some extent heavy metals in soils in the vicinity of the power stations, and enrichment of elements in river overbank soils are a result of discharge of fly ash leachates from ash disposal ponds. However, the impact from both these sources of metal contamination is not large enough to give cause for concern. Marked reduction in populations of Eichhornia crassipes downstream of the river where it receives leachates from the ash disposal ponds are attributed to turbidity of the ash pond leachates and metal toxicity. Elemental enrichment in the floodplain soils, as a result of fly ash particle deposition during monsoons, may enhance the horticultural value of these soils as is shown by a healthy cultivated crop of Brassica juncea.  相似文献
5.
Plants of Eichhornia crassipes grown at various levels of cadmium ranging from 0.1 to 100 μg ml−1 accumulated Cd in a concentration and duration dependent manner. At all levels, Cd accumulation by various plant tissues followed the order roots shoot leaves. Approximately 80% of total Cd was accumulated by plant at highest concentration (100 μg ml−1) used in the experiment. Cadmium induced phytotoxicity appears at 25.0 μg ml−1 resulting into reduced levels of chlorophyll, protein and in vivo nitrate reductase activity of the plant. However, a slight induction of these physiological variables was obtained at lowest Cd (0.1 μg ml−1) concentration. In contrast, carotenoid content increased at highest Cd concentration i.e., 100 μg ml−1. Similar effects at low and high levels of Cd was obtained with respect to mitotic index and micronuclei in root meristem of the plant. It could be inferred that Cd toxicity in plant is differential depending upon the low and high concentration of Cd in the medium.  相似文献
6.
Various aquatic plant species are known to accumulate heavy metals through the process of bioaccumulation. World’s most troublesome aquatic weed water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has been studied for its tendency to bio-accumulate and bio-magnify the heavy metal contaminants present in water bodies. The chemical investigation of plant parts has shown that it accumulates heavy metals like lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) to a large extent. Of all the heavy metals studied Pb, Zn and Mn tend to show greater affinity towards bioaccumulation. The higher concentration of metal in the aquatic weed signifies the biomagnification that lead to filtration of metallic ions from polluted water. The concept that E. crassipes can be used as a natural aquatic treatment system in the uptake of heavy metals is explored.  相似文献
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