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1.
杭州市大气污染物排放清单及特征   总被引:14,自引:8,他引:6  
以杭州市区为研究区域,通过调查整合多套污染源数据库及其他统计资料,研究文献报道及模型计算的各种污染源排放因子,获得杭州市区各行业PM10、PM2.5、SO2、NOx、CO、VOCs、NH3等污染物的排放量,建立了杭州市区2010年1 km×1 km大气污染物排放清单。结果表明,2010年杭州市区PM10、PM2.5、SO2、NOx、CO、VOCs和NH3的排放总量分别为7.96×104、4.02×104、7.23×104、8.98×104、73.90×104、39.56×104、3.32×104t。从排放源的行业分布来看,机动车尾气排放是杭州市区大气污染物最重要排放源之一,对PM10、PM2.5、NOx、CO和VOCs的贡献分别达到14.4%、27.1%、40.3%、21.4%、31.1%。道路扬尘、电厂锅炉、工业炉窑、植被、畜禽养殖对不同污染物分别有着重要贡献,道路扬尘对PM10和PM2.5的贡献分别为44.6%和20.0%、电厂锅炉对SO2和NOx的贡献分别为37.0%和25.7%、工业炉窑对CO的贡献为41.5%、植被排放对VOCs的贡献为27.1%、畜禽养殖对NH3的贡献为76.5%。从空间分布来看,萧山区和余杭区对SO2、NH3和植被排放BVOC的贡献要显著高于主城区;而主城区机动车对PM2.5、NOx和VOCs的贡献分别达到36.3%、56.0%和47.4%,较市区范围内显著增加,表明机动车尾气排放已成为杭州主城区大气污染最重要的来源之一。  相似文献
2.
Air pollution in Athens basin and health risk assessment   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
An inventory of air pollution sources within the Athens basin is carried out for the years 1989, 1992 and 1998 and the results areinputted in a climatological model for predicting ambient concentrations. Despite of the significant growth in the numberof road vehicles and the deteriorating traffic, the emissions andambient concentrations of fine particulates, CO, NOx and VOCappear to remain reasonably constant over for the period 1989 to 1998, while these of SO2 and Pb are reduced, mainly due to the renewal of vehicle fleet, the use of catalytic technologies and the improved quality of the used fuel. The results further indicate that for CO, NOx and VOC the major source is road traffic, while for PM2.5 and SO2 both space heating andtraffic share responsibility. The air pollutant concentrations monitored by the network of 11 stations are reviewed and statistics related to air quality guidelines are presented. As fine particulate levels are not monitored, approximate PM2.5and PM10 concentrations are derived from black smoke ones on basis of experimentally determined conversion factors. The computed and monitored air pollution levels are compared and found in reasonable agreement. The results of the above analysisshow that the levels of all `classical' pollutants, with the exception of SO2 and Pb, exceed significantly the WHO guidelines and are thus expected to exert a significant healthimpact. The latter could be quantified in relation to the PM2.5 or PM10 levels on the basis of risk assessment information developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The results show that the existing levels of fine particle concentrations in Athens increase significantly the mortality and morbidity, and reduce the average longevity of the entirepopulation from 1.3 to 1.7 years.  相似文献
3.
长三角区域环境空气质量预测预警体系建设的思考   总被引:7,自引:7,他引:0  
刘娟 《中国环境监测》2012,28(4):135-140
世博会期间长三角区域空气质量自动监测网络和数据共享平台的成功搭建和有效运行,为探索长三角区域空气质量预测预警长期合作模式提供了宝贵的经验和启示。需要建立全方位区域空气质量监测网络和数据资源共享系统、源排放清单、开发区域多模式集合预报系统,构建区域多层面运作机制和会商制度,建设一批专业技术和复合型人才队伍。区域不同层面有效的管理体制机制的保障是区域环境空气质量预测预警体系的基础支撑。  相似文献
4.
青岛市港口船舶大气污染排放清单的建立及应用   总被引:7,自引:2,他引:5  
2002~2006年青岛市环保局与瑞典国际开发合作署合作开发了青岛市空气环境质量管理系统,建立青岛市海上交通源大气污染排放清单是其中的一项子专题,范围涉及青岛沿岸分布的港口,重点考虑船舶停泊港口及航线过程的大气污染物排放,划分了20条航线。建立的青岛市海上交通源大气污染排放清单在开发的基于GIS地理信息系统EnviMan复合源大气扩散模型中得到较好应用,实现了对沿海主要大气污染物排放量的空间模拟测算,解析出大气污染排放清单建立年度青岛市港口、航运排放的大气污染物对市区环境空气中的SO2、NOX浓度贡献分别约占8.0%、12.9%。  相似文献
5.
Validation of Urban Emission Inventories   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Two emission validation methods are presented. The first method focuses on the precision of the emission factors and the accuracy of modelled traffic flows. Emission factors derived from the COPERT II methodology are compared with on-board emission measurements and modelled traffic flow rates are compared with observations. The second validation method focuses on the completeness of the inventory, i.e. coverage of all sources. The method compares measured pollutant fluxes in the urban plume with the downwind transported and dispersed emissions integrated over plume width and mixing height. Both methods seem to indicate that traffic emission factors used in the urban emission inventories show large uncertainties. Besides the lack of measurement precision this is mainly induced by external influence factors like driving behaviour and vehicle maintenance.  相似文献
6.
南京市建筑扬尘排放清单研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
统计分析了2010年南京市各行政区建筑场地面积和工期,结合扬尘排放因子,建立了南京市建筑扬尘排放清单。研究表明,2010年南京市建筑扬尘TSP、PM10和PM2.5的排放量分别达2.53万t、1.40万t和0.95万t,占工业烟(粉)尘排放量的23%、13%和8.6%。郊区县建筑扬尘排放量较大,约占全市 TSP、PM10、PM2.5排放总量的72%;主城区排放强度较高。对不同建筑工程类型扬尘排放量估算表明,城市建设工程和市政工程是建筑扬尘的主要来源,城市建设工程中又以住宅类建设工程为主。对不同研究获得的建筑扬尘结果比较,发现扬尘排放因子选择和污染源活动水平统计是影响建筑扬尘结果的关键因素。  相似文献
7.
The paper presents an emission inventory for Cochin, which is a highly industrialized area situated in the southern part of India. A proper emission inventory is very important for planning pollution control programmes, particularly in coastal sites like Cochin, where environmental situations are of growing concern owing to their typical meterorological conditions. In a systematic way the sources are broadly classified as point, line and area sources. The data on emissions from industries, fuel consumption for vehicular and domestic activities along with the respective emission factors are used for estimating the emissions. The study reveals that industrial sources are mainly responsible for emissions of particulate matter, oxides of sulphur and ammonia in the region. Automobiles are the prime sources of hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide emitting 95%, 77% and 70% respectively of their total emissions, while the contribution from domestic sources is not very significant.  相似文献
8.
The impact of air traffic on the global atmosphere is characterised by a high degree of uncertainty, concerning both the physico-chemical phenomena involved and the extent of the forcing due to anthropogenic emissions. The different effects of these emissions (e.g. on climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, acidification, tropospheric ozone formation) are dealt with by different international bodies and conventions (e.g. IPCC, EMEP. . .) which are trying to define a standard methodology allowing countries to evaluate their contributions to global aircraft emissions and to report these figures in a standardised way. The paper compares different methodologies proposed by the joint EMEP/CORINAIR 'Atmospheric Emission Inventory Guidebook' for estimating aircraft emissions. Adjustments to these methodologies have been proposed, in order to integrate some additional data such as the total amount of flight hours per aircraft type or fuel consumption per trip. In case detailed information is not available, we recommend the use of a VERY SIMPLE methodology which may yield acceptable results, provided that every country makes adequate assumptions on the average aircraft type.  相似文献
9.
In countries having limited resources, it is difficult to assess urban air quality on contemporaneously, due to the absence of on-line information about air pollution levels and emission rates. An alternative approach is recommended for smaller cities with lower demands of resources. The applied scheme consists of a database of air pollution sources (NO x and CO from industry, traffic, and domestic heating), the simple Gaussian-plume model AEROPOL and a series of measurements by passive monitors. This method was used in Tartu, a small city situated in the valley of the river Emajõgi, within a landscape with noteworthy topographical variations. Simulations of annual average and maximal concentrations were performed, and a fair agreement obtained with NO2 monitoring results from passive Palmes monitors. Inventories of pollution sources in 1998 revealed that official statistics of stationary sources covered 64% of SO2,36% of CO, 37% of NO x and 32% of total particulate matter emissions. Recommendations for measures for reducing air pollution levels and for further investigations towards improving air quality assessment and management, are given.  相似文献
10.
Pakistan is one of the few countries in Asia thatcontinues to use only leaded-petrol as vehicular fuel. Theconcentration of Pb in its petrol reported in 1991 was thehighest (1.5 – 2.0 g Pb L-1) of all produced by the various Asiancountries and far exceeded the WHOs guideline of 0.15 g Pb L-1. We have undertaken a study to trace and quantify this toxicelement in the environs of Karachi, Pakistans major metropolis,having more than 30% of the nations total number of vehicles.In this article we report the Pb contents of petrol and dieselcurrently manufactured and marketed in the city. Samples of`Regular petrol collected in 1999 was found to contain 0.363 gPb L-1 (range: 0.335 – 0.390 g Pb L-1), a factor of 5 lower than thatmarketed prior to 1991. Its concentration in diesel fuel was muchlower (0.017 g Pb L-1). Based on the available statistical data onthe type and volume of vehicular traffic, we assessed that thecurrent lead emission from vehicular traffic into the atmosphereis 391 metric tons a year, which is a factor of 2.7 lower thanthat estimated for 1989.  相似文献
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