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突发环境事件应急处置中的监测支持   总被引:23,自引:5,他引:18       下载免费PDF全文
阐述了突发环境事件与环境应急监测的定义与分类,详细介绍了环境应急监测中事前的技术贮备、事中的处理处置及事后的评估3个环节。指出环境监测在突发环境事件的应急处置中发挥着重要的决策支持和技术保障作用。  相似文献
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通过对苏州市近几年开展的突发环境事件应急预案编制工作的分析,总结了企业突发环境事件应急预案编制中存在的问题,探索了"十二五"期间突发环境事件应急预案规范化管理中面临的挑战,并结合实际提出了针对企业突发环境事件应急预案编制管理工作的一些建议。  相似文献
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In this paper, the movement behavior of Daphnia magna was studied as a bio-indicator of organophosphorous pesticide (OP) contamination, using an on-line bio-monitoring method, the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor. A static test of acute toxicity test revealed the 24-h and 48-h LC(50) values (95% confidence limit) for Daphnia magna to be respectively 0.45 microg/l and 0.21 microg/l for dipterex 3.80 microg/l and 0.90 microg/l for malathion, and 1.25 microg/l and 0.38 microg/l for parathion. The behavior strength of Daphnia magna was a sensitive indicator of sublethal OP stress and resulted in significant concentration-response relationships for the three OPs. Increasing OP concentration will result in more intensive behavioral responses of Daphnia magna and shorter response time, which could be described by the Stepwise Stress Model (SSM). Therefore movement behavior can be effectively applied in early warning of environment quality by on-line bio-monitoring. The intensive changes in behavior strength of Daphnia magna over a short time follow the SSM concept and can be used as an indicator of early stress response to OP accidental contamination.  相似文献
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This study investigates the inherent optical properties (IOP) of a Brazilian river during a non-natural, anthropogenically mediated, toxic spill of a wood-pulping factory (the ‘Cataguazes accident’). The results indicated an outstanding transformation in the river water chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) pools. For instance, increases in CDOM absorption coefficients, a CDOM (λ), which were averaged at specific spectral intervals, , ranged from 58-fold at the UV-B and UV-A ranges to 95-fold at the PAR range. As a result, the water color expressed as CDOM absorption at 440 nm, a CDOM (440), varied from 4.16 to 365.03 m-1. For S-coefficient, the variations ranged from ∼1.1 to 5.6-fold, respectively, at the 300–650 nm and UV-B range. The variability of S as a proxy of dissolved chromophores was thus clearly influenced by the spectral range used. Optical proportions were also investigated through the use of and S ratios at the UV-B, UV-A, and PAR ranges and, in the case of , also at the NIR range. This approach also showed clear variations between the water samples, likely reflecting changes in the composition of optically active substances in the river system. As a whole, the findings obtained here indicated that both the quantity and quality of the chromophoric material dissolved in the river water were greatly altered by the toxic spill. The changes in the optical properties of the river water, although extreme and likely with no parallel in the literature, were quite rapid as indicated by the optical resilience of the system. Overall, this study indicates that IOP might be thought, and possibly used, as a metric tool for monitoring the state of waters and aquatic ecosystems.  相似文献
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分析了近年来江苏省几起典型的饮用水水源地突发环境事件及其特点,指出,结构性、布局性突发环境事件风险突出,交通运输带来的环境风险仍在凸显,企业非法排污产生的环境风险不小,饮用水水源地监测预警手段不足,联合治水模式尚未形成,流域性环境风险防控机制尚未建立。提出,应开展饮用水水源地突发环境事件风险评估,健全突发环境事件监控预警网络,健全饮用水水源地突发环境事件联防联控机制,加强饮用水水源地突发环境事件应急处置技术研究,加快产业机构调整和备用水源地建设。  相似文献
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通过对苏州市近几年开展的突发环境事件应急预案编制工作的分析,总结了企业突发环境事件应急预案编制中存在的问题,探索了“十二五”期间突发环境事件应急预案规范化管理中面临的挑战,并结合实际提出了针对企业突发环境事件应急预案编制管理工作的一些建议。  相似文献
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