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1.
不同污染指示菌对河流的细菌学评价   总被引:5,自引:2,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
以细菌学理论为依据,以湖南沅江常德江段水体为实例,说明了用《地表水环境质量标准》(GHZB 1-1999)中粪大肠菌群指标(FC)和《地面水环境质量标准》(GB 3838-88)中总大肠菌群指标(TC)分别评价河流水体的细菌学质量所存在的差异。  相似文献
2.
粪大肠菌群酶底物法在环境应急监测中的应用   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
结合国外粪大肠菌群的酶底物检测方法,针对某次突发环境污染事件,用酶底物法和标准方法多管发酵法同步检测受污染地表水中的粪大肠菌群,讨论酶底物法在应急监测中检测粪大肠菌群的适用性。结果表明,两种方法的测定数据显著相关,没有统计学差异( P>0.05)。相对于多管发酵法,酶底物法特异性强,检测时间短,二次污染少,符合应急监测的要求。  相似文献
3.
舟山市海洋贝类生物体内的细菌学研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
对浙江省舟山市各区县海洋贝类体内细菌数量及优势细菌种类进行了初步研究。根据2004年8月的采样和实验室分析,结果表明,贝类生物体内的优势种为少动鞘氨醇单胞菌、温和气单胞菌、欧文氏菌属等,一些能够诱发疾病的如杀鲑气单胞菌、溶藻弧菌、腐败假单胞菌等的出现应当引起重视。对生物体内的细菌数量检测发现,弧菌和粪大肠菌群数量都比较高,弧菌的测值范围为50个/克~1.8×104个/克,几何平均为9.3×102个/克;粪大肠菌群的测值范围为2.0~23个/克,几何平均为12.0个/克,超国家海洋生物体内粪大肠菌群二类标准,超标率为91.7%。  相似文献
4.
谢嵘 《干旱环境监测》2004,18(3):191-192
通过实验摸索出粪大肠菌群的一种五管发酵法。该方法检测下限为9个/L,适用于地表水和废水中粪大肠菌群的测定。  相似文献
5.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommends the use of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococci as indicators of enteric pathogens in fresh waters; however, fecal coliform analyses will remain important by virtue of the large amount of historic data collected in prior years. In this study, we attempted, in a real-world situation (i.e., a rural inland watershed in the Piedmont of South Carolina) to compare different bacterial indicators and methods to one another. We compared fecal coliforms, enumerated by membrane filtration with E. coli, enumerated by a commercialized enzyme substrate method and observed E. coli/fecal coliform ratios of 1.63 and 1.2 for two separate tests. In the same watershed, we observed an E. coli/fecal coliform ratio of 0.84 when we used the commercialized enzyme substrate method for both enumerations. Given these results, users of such data should exercise care when they make comparisons between historic membrane filtration data and data acquired through the use of the more modern enzymatic methods. Some sampling and side-by-side testing between methods in a specific watershed may be prudent before any conversion factors between old and new datasets are applied.  相似文献
6.
Natural spring water has unique properties, as it is rich in minerals that are considered to be beneficial to human health. A survey of the microbiological quality of natural spring water was conducted to assess possible risks from the consumption of the water by visitors in recreational mountain areas located in Seoul, South Korea. The densities of total coliforms and Escherichia coli were measured during the spring and the summer of 2002 to investigate the presence of coliform bacteria in the drinking spring waters. Total coliforms were detected in all samples and the mean density of total coliforms was up to a maximum of 228 CFU/mL. Detectable E. coli was found in 78% of all samples and the mean densities of E. coli varied from a minimum of 0 CFU/mL to a maximum of 15 CFU/mL in all samples. Malfunctioning septic systems and wildlife population appear to be the main source of E. coli contamination. Presence of E. coli in natural spring water indicates potential adverse health effects for individuals or populations exposed to this water. The fecal contaminated spring water may present an unacceptable risk to humans if it is used as raw drinking water.  相似文献
7.
How and where to improve water quality within an agricultural watershed requires data at a spatial scale that corresponds with individual management decision units on an agricultural operation. This is particularly true in the context of water quality regulations, such as Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs), that identify agriculture as one source of non-point source pollution through larger tributary watershed scale and above and below water quality investigations. We have conducted a systems approach study of 10 coastal dairies and ranches to document fecal coliform concentration and loading to surface waters at the management decision unit scale. Water quality samples were collected on a storm event basis from loading units that included: manure management systems; gutters; storm drains; pastures; and corrals and lots. In addition, in-stream samples were collected above and below the dairy facilities and from a control watershed, managed for light grazing and without a dairy facility or human residence and corresponding septic system. Samples were analyzed for fecal coliform concentration by membrane filtration. Instantaneous discharge was measured for each collected sample. Storm runoff was also calculated using the curve number method (SCS, 1985). Results for a representative dairy as well as the entire 10 dairy data set are presented. Fecal coliform concentrations demonstrate high variability both within and between loading units. Fecal coliform concentrations for pastures range from 206 to 2,288,888 cfu/100 ml and for lots from 1,933 to 166,105,000 cfu/100 ml. Mean concentrations for pastures and lots are 121,298 (SE=62,222) and 3,155,584 (SE=1,902,713) cfu/100 ml, respectively. Fecal coliform load from units of concentrated animals and manure are significantly more than units such as pastures while storm flow amounts were significantly less. Compared with results from earlier tributary scale studies in the watershed, this systems approach has generatedwater quality data that is beneficial for management decisions because of its scale and representation of current management activities. These results are facilitating on-farm changes through the cooperative efforts of dairy managers, regulatory agency staff, and sources of technical and financial assistance.  相似文献
8.
A regional survey of the microbiological water quality along the shoreline of the Southern California Bight (SCB), from Point Conception south to Ensenada, Mexico, was conducted during August, 1998, by 36 agencies under the coordination of the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Microbiological water quality was assessed by calculating the percentage of shoreline-mile-days that exceeded bacterial indicator thresholds for total and fecal coliforms, total/fecal ratios, and enterococci. Sample sites were selected using a stratified random sampling approach, with the SCB recreational shoreline divided into six strata: high- and low-use sandy beaches, high- and low-use rocky shoreline, and perennial and ephemeral freshwater outlets. Samples were collected on a weekly basis at a total of 253 sites, beginning on August 2nd, 1998 and continuing for five weeks. Samples were analyzed by 22 participating labs using their normal methods (multiple tube fermentation, membrane filtration, Colilert® and/or Enterolert®). All labs met testing criteria established through intercalibration exercises and quality control check samples distributed during the sampling period. Nearly 95% of the shoreline-mile days did not exceed daily and monthly bacterial indicator thresholds, demonstrating good bacteriological water quality along the SCB shoreline. Freshwater outlets, comprised mainly of storm drains, had the poorest water quality with 60% and 40% of the shoreline-miles exceeding monthly and daily thresholds, respectively. Freshwater outlets were also more likely to demonstrate exceedances by multiple indicators at a single site, and repeat exceedances at sites over the five-week period. Compared with the southern California beaches, Mexican beaches had nearly 5 times the number of exceedances for total and fecal coliforms, and nearly 8 times the number of exceedances for total/fecal ratios.  相似文献
9.
Simple microbial test comprising H2S paper strip test,presence-absence (PA) test, and fluorogenic brila broth (BB)test performed directly at 44.5 °C were evaluated andcompared with the standard most probable number (MPN) method fordetection of fecal coliforms in 173 drinking water sources. BBand PA test were comparable with standard MPN method, whereas,poor compliance was noted for H2S test. PA test whencompared with standard MPN test only 15%; disagreement wasdetected, whereas, highest disagreement of 40%; was observed incase of H2S test. BB test was found to be highly sensitiveas only 7.8% disagreement with that of standard MPN test wasfound. Three hundred cultures obtained from positive tests wereidentified in order to evaluate the specificities of test usedin detection of fecal indicator Escherichia coli. BB testwas also found highly specific in detection of indicatororganism as compared to PA and H2S test. Among theorganisms isolated from BB test 84.4%; of them were identifiedas E. coli as compared to 43.4 and 33.3 in PA and H2Stest, respectively. The low incidence of recovery of E.coli (18.1%) for the standard MPN method places doubt on thevalidity of its application in tropical areas. The result ofthis investigation suggest that BB performed directly at 44.5 °C could be suitable cost effective test to assess themicrobiological quality of drinking water in India and other tropical countries.  相似文献
10.
采用标准菌株、实际水样和国际标准样品,比较纸片快速法与多管发酵法的一致性。标准菌株试验表明,两种方法在粪大肠菌群的定性检测上没有显著性差异;实际水样试验表明,纸片快速法的检测结果略低于多管发酵法,但两种方法检测结果的回归关系显著;国际标准样品试验表明,两种方法的精密度与准确度均无统计学意义上的显著性差异。  相似文献
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