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排序方式: 共有143条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1.
南京环境污染事故应急监测地理信息系统利用南京电子地图的地理信息,将环境污染事故应急监测数据库与GIS结合,并通过GIS技术综合分析环境污染事故中风险源要素。该系统采用支持面向对象技术的程序语言,MapObjects控件,构成面向最终用户的可执行应用程序。系统由软件平台和硬件平台组成;系统在运行环境和系统网络结构上采用客户端和服务器架构,以满足应急监测与地理信息系统相结合的目的;系统分析对GIS在环境污染应急监测中的应用作了具体分析。  相似文献
2.
基于RS、GIS的城市绿地生态效益评价与预测模型   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15  
以遥感(RS)信息作为主要的数据来源,结合其他实地监测和统计数据,采用GIS技术进行数据分析和处理,建立城市绿地生态效益评价与预测模型,为城市绿地规划、改善城市生态环境提供定量化的科学依据。  相似文献
3.
环境在线监测监控管理与发布系统   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13  
阐述了省级环境在线监测监控管理与发布系统的组成及功能特点,介绍了采用GPRS无线数据传输方式,对水、气、污染源等环境在线监测自动化系统进行数据采集、统计与GIS发布的实现方式,指出其具有传输速率高、延时小、实时性强、建设方便、费用低廉等显著优点。  相似文献
4.
Desertification Evaluated Using an Integrated Environmental Assessment Model   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
Desertification has been defined as land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities (United Nations, 1992). A technique for identifying and assessing areas at risk fordesertification in the arid, semi-arid, and subhumid regionsof the United States was developed by the Desert Research Institute and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), using selected environmental indicators integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS). Five indicators were selected: potential erosion, grazing pressure, climatic stress (expressed as a function of changesin the Palmer Drought Severity Index [PDSI]), change invegetation greenness (derived from the Normalized DifferenceVegetation Index [NDVI]), and weedy invasives as a percentof total plant cover. The data were integrated over aregional geographic setting using a GIS, which facilitateddata display, development and exploration of data relationships, including manipulation and simulation testing. By combining all five data layers, landscapes having a varying risk for land degradation were identified, providing a tool which could be used to improve landmanagement efficiency.  相似文献
5.
新疆生态环境质量综合评价研究   总被引:10,自引:2,他引:8  
合适的评价指标体系对正确评价区域的生态环境质量起关键的决定性作用。本文综合前人的研究成果,应用RS和GIS技术,采用综合指数评价法,对全疆区域的生态环境质量进行评价、排序及分级,由此得出符合实际的全疆生态环境质量状况。结果表明,全疆生态环境质量总体较差,北疆生态环境质量优于南疆,北疆西部生态环境质量优于北疆东部地区。  相似文献
6.
环境监测自动监测系统信息共享技术研究   总被引:10,自引:1,他引:9  
针对我国环境监测现状,分析了当前各地监测系统存在的环境监测信息综合处理困难及信息交换障碍等问题,结合国家不同层次对环境监测数据的需求及侧重点,分析了实现环境监测数据共享存在的问题,给出了信息共享元数据内容,介绍了科技部项目主要功能和设计方法及思路。最后对环境监测信息共享技术发展提出了自已的观点。  相似文献
7.
兰州市主要大气污染物浓度季节变化时空特征分析   总被引:10,自引:1,他引:9  
应用统计方法分析了兰州市大气污染物SO2、NOx、TSP浓度时空分布的季节变化特征。使用GIS空间叠加分析技术,利用污染源、人口、绿地覆盖等空间数据,对上述污染物时空分布特征的成因进行了探讨。研究表明,兰州市大气环境质量状态存在鲜明的冬春高、夏秋低的季节差异。空间上,经济活跃、人口密集城区污染程度更高。TSP污染物是造成兰州市大气环境质量下降的主要污染源,但其他两种污染物对兰州市区大气环境质量的影响也不能忽视。相关分析表明,社会经济因素对兰州市空气质量的时空分布有一定影响。GIS空间分析功能是分析城市空气环境质量时空变化特征的一个有效工具。  相似文献
8.
Many studies are based on the assumption that an area and its surrounding (buffer) area present similar environmental conditions and can be compared. For example, in order to assess the effectiveness of a protected area, the land use/cover changes are compared inside the park with its surroundings. However, the heterogeneity in spatial variables can bias this assessment: we have shown that most of the protected areas in Mexico present significant environmental differences between their interior and their surroundings. Therefore, a comparison that aims at assessing the effectiveness of conservation strategies, must be cautioned. In this paper, a simple method which allows the generation of a buffer area that presents similar conditions with respect to a set of environmental variables is presented. The method was used in order to assess the effectiveness of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, a protected area located in the south-eastern part of Mexico. The annual rate of deforestation inside the protected area, the standard buffer area (based upon distance from the protected area only) and the similar buffer area (taking into account distance along with some environmental variables) were 0.3, 1.3 and 0.6%, respectively. These results showed that the protected area was effective in preventing land clearing, but that the comparison with the standard buffer area gave an over-optimistic vision of its effectiveness.  相似文献
9.
Land managers need better techniques to assess exoticplant invasions. We used the cross-correlationstatistic, I YZ, to test for the presence ofspatial cross-correlation between pair-wisecombinations of soil characteristics, topographicvariables, plant species richness, and cover ofvascular plants in a 754 ha study site in RockyMountain National Park, Colorado, U.S.A. Using 25 largeplots (1000 m2) in five vegetation types, 8 of 12variables showed significant spatial cross-correlationwith at least one other variable, while 6 of 12variables showed significant spatial auto-correlation. Elevation and slope showed significant spatialcross-correlation with all variables except percentcover of native and exotic species. Percent cover ofnative species had significant spatialcross-correlations with soil variables, but not withexotic species. This was probably because of thepatchy distributions of vegetation types in the studyarea. At a finer resolution, using data from ten1 m2 subplots within each of the 1000 m2 plots, allvariables showed significant spatial auto- andcross-correlation. Large-plot sampling was moreaffected by topographic factors than speciesdistribution patterns, while with finer resolutionsampling, the opposite was true. However, thestatistically and biologically significant spatialcorrelation of native and exotic species could only bedetected with finer resolution sampling. We foundexotic plant species invading areas with high nativeplant richness and cover, and in fertile soils high innitrogen, silt, and clay. Spatial auto- andcross-correlation statistics, along with theintegration of remotely sensed data and geographicinformation systems, are powerful new tools forevaluating the patterns and distribution of native andexotic plant species in relation to landscape structure.  相似文献
10.
新疆生态环境遥感监测与综合评价   总被引:7,自引:1,他引:6  
应用RS和GIS技术,采用综合指数评价法,对全疆区域各县市生态环境质量及其动态变化进行了系统的综合评价和对比分析。结果显示新疆生态环境质量总体较差,而且在空间上存在较大差异;与2000年相比,2002年新疆生态环境质量呈现总体变化不大的态势。  相似文献
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