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1.
石河子市地下水环境背景值   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
采集并测定了石河子市19个地下水背景水样,分别确定了该市潜水和承压—自流水中K+、Na+、Ca2+、Mg2+、Cl-、SO、HCO、NO、F-、总硬度、矿化度、可溶性SiO2、COD、pH、Cu、Pb、Zn、Cd、Mn、V、Li、Mo、Se、Hg、I、As、Cr+5、C6H5OH、CN-、ABS的环境背景值.  相似文献
2.
黄浦江上游优先控制有机物的筛选   总被引:7,自引:1,他引:6  
参考国内外同行有关控制物的筛选方法,通过黄浦江上游饮用水源保护区内水质的污染现状分析,确立了黄浦江上游水源保护区优先控制污染物的筛选原则和筛选程序,建立了黄浦江上游工业废水和地面水中的优先控制的名单。  相似文献
3.
Water environmental degradation is a major issue in the Heihe River Basin belonging to the inland river basin of temperate arid zone in northwestern China. Mankind’s activities, such as dense population and heavy dependence on irrigated agriculture, place immense pressure on available and limited water resources during the last century, especially the recent five decades. An investigation on the water environmental degradation in the Heihe River Basin and analysis of its causation were conducted. The results indicated that water environmental changes in the whole basin were tremendous mostly in the middle reaches, which reflected in surface water runoff change, decline of groundwater table and degeneration of surface water and groundwater quality. Some new forms of management based on traditional and scientific knowledge must be introduced to solve problems of water environmental degradation in the Heihe River Basin.  相似文献
4.
The Lower Ponnaiyar River Basin forms an important groundwater province in South India constituted by Tertiary formations dominated by sandstones and overlain by alluvium. The region enjoyed artesian conditions 50 years back but at present frequent failure of monsoon and over exploitation is threatening the aquifer. Further, extensive agricultural and industrial activities and urbanization has resulted in the increase in demand and contamination of the aquifer. To identify the sources and quality of groundwater, water samples from 47 bore wells were collected in an area of 154 km2 and were analysed for major ions and trace metals. The results reveal that the groundwater in many places is contaminated by higher concentrations of NO3, Cl, PO4 and Fe. Four major hydrochemical facies Ca–Mg–Cl, Na–Cl, Ca–HCO3 and Na–HCO3 were identified using Piper trilinear diagram. Salinity, sodium adsorption ratio, and sodium percentage indicate that most of the groundwater samples are not suitable for irrigation as well as for domestic purposes and far from drinking water standards. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from nitrate ions, which are associated with sewage and fertilizers application. The present state of the quality of the lower part of Ponnaiyar River Basin is of great concern and the higher concentration of toxic metals (Fe and Ni) may entail various health hazards.  相似文献
5.
典型水源地地下水污染风险评价   总被引:6,自引:4,他引:2  
地下水污染是由含水层本身的脆弱性与人类活动产生的污染负荷造成的。污染物的荷载可以控制或改变,但是含水层的敏感性是本质的、天然的特性。污染风险不仅取决于相对稳定、不宜改变的含水层天然特征,还取决于主观的污染活动。因此,从地下水天然防污性能、地下水污染源荷载以及地下水社会效益3个方面评价了典型水源地地下水受污染的风险。  相似文献
6.
Soil salinization is an important worldwide environmental problem, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Knowledge of its temporal and spatial variability is crucial for the management of oasis agriculture. The study area has experienced dramatic change in the shallow groundwater table and soil salinization during the 20th century, especially in the past two decades. Classical statistics, geostatistics and geographic information system (GIS) were applied to estimate the spatial variability of the soil salt content in relation to the shallow groundwater table and land use from 1983 to 2005. Consumption of reservoir water for agricultural irrigation was the main cause of a rise in the shallow groundwater table under intense evapotranspiration conditions, and this led indirectly to soil salinization. The area of soil salt accumulation was greater in irrigated than in non-irrigated landscape types with an increasing of 40.04% from 1983 to 2005 in cropland at ∼0.43 t ha−1 year−1, and an increase at ∼0.68 t ha−1 year−1 in saline alkaline land. Maps of the shallow groundwater table in 1985 and 2000 were used to deduce maps for 1983 and 1999, respectively, and the registration accuracy was 99%.  相似文献
7.
Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Gazipur landfill-site and its adjacent area to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentration of various physico-chemical parameters including heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) and microbiological parameters (total coliform (TC) and faecal coliform (FC)) were determined in groundwater and leachate samples. The moderately high concentrations of Cl, NO 3, SO2− 4, NH+ 4, Phenol, Fe, Zn and COD in groundwater, likely indicate that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they proved to be as tracers for groundwater contamination. The effect of depth and distance of the well from the pollution source was also investigated. The presence of TC and FC in groundwater warns for the groundwater quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demand for the proper management of waste in Delhi.  相似文献
8.
The aim of the present work is the assessment of metal toxicity in runoff, in their contaminated soils and in the groundwater sampled from two mining areas in the region of Marrakech using a microbial bioassay MetPLATE™. This bioassay is based on the specific inhibition of the β-galactosidase enzyme of a mutant strain of Escherichia coli, by the metallic pollutants. The stream waters from all sampling stations in the two mines were all very toxic and displayed percent enzyme inhibition exceeding 87% except SWA4 and SWB1 stations in mine C. Their high concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) confirm the acute toxicity shown by MetPLATE. The pH of stream waters from mine B and C varied between 2.1 and 6.2 and was probably responsible for metal mobilization, suggesting a problem of acid mine drainage in these mining areas. The bioassay MetPLATE™ was also applied to mine tailings and to soils contaminated by the acidic waters. The results show that the high toxicity of these soils and tailings was mainly due to the relatively concentration of soluble Zn and Cu. The use of MetPLATE™ in groundwater toxicity testing shows that, most of the samples exhibited low metal toxicity (2.7–45.5% inhibition) except GW3 of the mine B (95.3% inhibition during the wet season and 82.9% inhibition during the dry season). This high toxicity is attributed to the higher than usual concentrations of Cu (189 μg Cu l−1) and Zn (1505 μg Zn l−1). These results show the potential risk of the contamination of different ecosystems situated to the vicinity of these two metalliferous sites. The general trend observed was an increase in metal toxicity measured by the MetPLATE with increasing total and mobile metal concentrations in the studied matrices. Therefore, the MetPLATE bioassay is a reliable and fast bioassay to estimate the metals toxicity in the aquatic and solids samples.  相似文献
9.
某铝厂邻近自然村环境氟污染现状监测及分析评价   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3  
通过对某铝冶炼厂邻近自然村地下水、地表水、土壤中氟化物含量进行监测,并对其氟污染程度进行分析及评价.结果表明,自然村地下水、地表水、土壤都不同程度地受到了氟污染,从平均质量指数来看,地下水受到了中度氟污染,地表水受到了重度氟污染,土壤受到轻度氟污染.氟是对植物、动物、人类有较高毒性的积累性污染物,为防止自然村地下水、地表水、土壤的氟污染现状进一步恶化,应当从源头上对氟污染源进行治理及控制,及时有效地解决当地铝冶炼造成的环境氟污染.  相似文献
10.
Groundwater and water resources management plays a key role in conserving the sustainable conditions in arid and semi-arid regions. Applying management tools which can reveal the critical and hot conditions seems necessary due to some limitations such as labor and funding. In this study, spatial and temporal analysis of monthly groundwater level fluctuations of 39 piezometric wells monitored during 12 years was carried out. Geostatistics which has been introduced as a management and decision tool by many researchers has been applied to reveal the spatial and temporal structure of groundwater level fluctuation. Results showed that a strong spatial and temporal structure existed for groundwater level fluctuations due to very low nugget effects. Spatial analysis showed a strong structure of groundwater level drop across the study area and temporal analysis showed that groundwater level fluctuations have temporal structure. On average, the range of variograms for spatial and temporal analysis was about 9.7 km and 7.2 months, respectively. Ordinary and universal kriging methods with cross-validation were applied to assess the accuracy of the chosen variograms in estimation of the groundwater level drop and groundwater level fluctuations for spatial and temporal scales, respectively. Results of ordinary and universal krigings revealed that groundwater level drop and groundwater level fluctuations were underestimated by 3% and 6% for spatial and temporal analysis, respectively, which are very low and acceptable errors and support the unbiasedness hypothesis of kriging. Although, our results demonstrated that spatial structure was a little bit stronger than temporal structure, however, estimation of groundwater level drop and groundwater level fluctuations could be performed with low uncertainty in both space and time scales. Moreover, the results showed that kriging is a beneficial and capable tool for detecting those critical regions where need more attentions for sustainable use of groundwater. Regions in which were detected as critical areas need to be much more managed for using the current water resources efficiently. Conducting water harvesting systems especially in critical and hot areas in order to recharge the groundwater, and altering the current cropping pattern to another one that need less water requirement and applying modern irrigation techniques are highly recommended; otherwise, it is most likely that in a few years no more crop would be cultivated.  相似文献
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