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1.
The residue of antibiotics is becoming an intractable environmental problem in many organic vegetable bases. However, their residual levels and distribution are still obscure. This work systematically analyzed the occurrence and migration of typical veterinary antibiotics in organic vegetable bases, northern China. The results showed that there was no obvious geographical difference in antibiotic distribution between soil and manure. A simple migration model can be easy and quick to predict the accumulation of antibiotics in soil. Antibiotics were mainly taken up through water transport and passive absorption in vegetables. The distribution of antibiotics in a plant was in the sequence leaf > stem > root, and performed biological accumulation. The residues of antibiotics in all samples in winter were significantly higher than those in summer. Overall, this work can lay the foundation for understanding ecological risk of antibiotics and their potential adverse effects on human health by food chain.  相似文献   
2.
Endemic fluorosis exists in almost all provinces of China. The long-term ingestion of groundwater containing high concentrations of fluoride is one of the main causes of fluorosis. We used artificial neural network to model the relationship between groundwater fluoride concentrations from throughout China and environmental variables such as climatic, geological. and soil parameters as proxy predictors. The results show that the accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the model in the test dataset are 80.5% and 0.86%, respectively, and climatic variables are the most effective predictors. Based on the artificial neural network model, a nationwide prediction risk map of fluoride concentrations exceeding 1.5 mg/L with a 0.5 × 0.5 arc minutes resolution was generated. The high risk areas are mainly located in western provinces of Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai, and Sichuan, and the northern provinces of Inner Mongolia, Hebei and Shandong. The total number of people estimated to be potentially at risk of fluorosis due to the use of untreated high fluoride groundwater as drinking water is about 89 million, or 6% of the population. The high fluoride groundwater risk map helps the authorities to prioritize areas requiring mitigation measures and thus facilitates the implementation of water improvement and defluoridation projects.  相似文献   
3.
Groundwater, a critical resource in many parts of the world, is often characterized as a common pool resource (Brozovic et al., 2006). Multiple individuals utilize groundwater from a basin, and each person has the capacity to reduce the quantity or quality available to others. We turn to a case study of the Pajaro Groundwater Basin in Central California to re-envision the characterization of “commons.” While providing a useful frame from which to analyze groundwater depletion in the Pajaro, we find Common Pool Resource (CPR) theory to be imprecise in its approach to a geographic scale. The notion of the “commons” is central to CPR studies, but there is wide divergence in what the “commons” constitutes, both spatially and socially (Laerhoven and Ostrom, 2007). Rather than propose a normative definition for the “commons,” we suggest that the “commons” as a geographic category is socially constructed and dynamically active over time, akin to the analytic of scale as developed within the fields of political ecology and geography. This move from situating the “commons” as a fixed and discrete geographic area to that which is constantly changing and relational helps us to better understand the ways in which water users collaborate and communicate around shared groundwater sources.  相似文献   
4.
Drinking water scarcity is an ever-increasing global concern. This issue appears as a greater threat to the countries with no access to sea water resources or rivers, since their potential water resources are only limited to ground waters only. There are serious concerns with the treatment of ground water resources, including landfill leachates, agricultural contaminations (pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers), and rural contaminations. Membrane separation has been proved to be the governing technology in water and wastewater treatment plants, as these methods are responsible for more than half of the market share of the world's desalination capacity. This study intends to offer a holistic view of the groundwater contamination with specific focus on Saskatchewan province in Canada, and the recent efforts in the groundwater treatment using thin film composite membrane technology. This study begins with an introduction of the general aspects of ground water and membrane separation, polluting agents, and their sources. It is followed by a discussion of Saskatchewan's groundwater status and various issues. Furthermore, the recent research that became available since 2010 is reviewed in details and the results are summarized with respect to purification efficiency. Different affecting parameters in a groundwater-thin film composite system are synthesized and an in-depth overview is presented.  相似文献   
5.
通过利用双道原子荧光法,同时对地表水和地下水样品中砷、硒进行测定,具有操作更加简单、监测分析速度快、节省试剂等优点。  相似文献   
6.
地下水污染具有难逆转性和隐蔽性,与地表水污染相比,地下水污染防治具有更大的难度。所以,对地下水污染与防治做出研究具有重要意义,基于此,在对地下水污染原因分析的基础上,对地下水污染防治的措施进行了研究和探讨。  相似文献   
7.
地下水污染健康风险评价理论体系研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
基于对风险的认识,以地下水为研究载体提出地下水污染健康风险评价的概念.按照风险识别、风险量化、风险管理的步骤构建了地下水污染健康风险评价的理论体系,并对每个步骤进行了详细的描述和研究方法的探讨,提出了判定的原则和方法以及对我国地下水污染健康风险管理的建议,以期为我国地下水资源管理和保护工作提供科学依据.  相似文献   
8.
通过对西南某铅锌矿尾矿库周围地下水土壤重金属元素含量的测定,研究、评价该尾矿库及其周围的浅层和深层地下水重金属污染、迁移特征及规律,为该类尾矿库工程设计、地下水预防和防治提供科学依据。结果表明:尾矿库下游的浅层地下水的铅和锌超标,尾矿库上游浅层地下水和尾矿库南、东和西的深层岩溶水各重金属物均达到《地下水质量标准》(GB/T14848—93)III类标准要求。尾矿库周围浅层地下水铅、锌、砷等重金属浓度比同一位置的深层地下水的高。  相似文献   
9.
我国地下水环境管理现状及管理制度构建研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
在目前进行我国《水污染防治法》的修法工作中,发现地下水的相关责任由国务院多个部门负责,系统性差,协调难度大,存在工作性质与管理责任脱节的现象。因此,文章在总结梳理国内法律法规和相关管理规定及理清各部门管理责任的基础上,针对我国地下水的实际情况,提出完善我国地下水管理制度及建议。  相似文献   
10.
国内外地下水环境监测工作研究进展   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
由于自然条件和经济社会发展条件的不同,使得不同国家和地区的地下水监测工作差别很大。文章在系统整理总结美国、欧盟、台湾等主要国家和地区地下水监测工作有关的论文、规章等成果基础上,对地下水监测工作研究现状进行了概述,结合我国地下水监测工作开展的实际情况,进行对比和分析;提出了目前我国在地下水监测工作中存在的不足,并对如何提高和促进我国地下水监测工作提出了对策建议。  相似文献   
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