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1.
Heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators are present in high concentrations. Therefore fly ash must be treated as a hazardous material. On the other hand, it may be a potential source of heavy metals. Zinc, lead, cadmium, and copper can be relatively easily removed during the thermal treatment of fly ash, e.g. in the form of chlorides. In return, wet extraction methods could provide promising results for these elements including chromium and nickel. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare thermal and hydrometallurgical treatment of municipal solid waste fly ash. Thermal treatment of fly ash was performed in a rotary reactor at temperatures between 950 and 1050 °C and in a muffle oven at temperatures from 500 to 1200 °C. The removal more than 90% was reached by easy volatile heavy metals such as cadmium and lead and also by copper, however at higher temperature in the muffle oven. The alkaline (sodium hydroxide) and acid (sulphuric acid) leaching of the fly ash was carried out while the influence of temperature, time, concentration, and liquid/solid ratio were investigated. The combination of alkaline-acidic leaching enhanced the removal of, namely, zinc, chromium and nickel.  相似文献   
2.
In the present study the concentrations of cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, zinc were analysed and the speciation of copper and zinc performed, with a summer and winter sampling, for two areas in the Northern Adriatic Sea and crossing at the farthest zones of the Po river-sea water interface. Results show that when salinity increases the concentrations of all investigated metals (with the exception of cobalt) present some degree of biogeochemical cycling. Copper is the element whose dissolved phase has the highest importance in metal transport across the salinity gradient. Results of speciation analysis demonstrate that the presence of excess amounts (5-8 fold) of unbound ligands confers a buffering capacity for potential inputs of dissolved metals into the Northern Adriatic Sea. The speciation of both copper and zinc in the dissolved phase was dominated by organic complexation.  相似文献   
3.
Levels of lead, zinc, cadmium, copper and nickel were determined in roadside moss samples within towns in the northern and south-eastern regions of Nigeria. Average lead level in the south-east (59 ppm) was higher than the average for the northern region (44 ppm). Average levels of zinc, cadmium, copper and nickel did not differ significantly between the two regions, with overall averages for the entire study area being 50.9, 1.2, 11.3 and 5.6 ppm for these metals. Lead levels were poorly correlated with those of the other metals, indicating that automobile emissions may not be the main source for these metals in the moss. In comparison with a previous study of the south-west region, the results indicate a generally slightly higher level of metal pollution in the south-west region than in both the northern and south-eastern regions.  相似文献   
4.
Nowadays, more people tend to spend their recreational time in large national parks, and trace metal(loid)s in soils have attracted long-term attention due to their possible harm to human health. To investigate the pollution levels, potential sources and health risks of trace metal(loid)s in road soils, a total of eight trace metal(loid)s (including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg) from 47 soil samples along roads were studied in the Huangshan National Park in Southeast China. The results showed that the concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, Zn and Hg appeared different degrees of pollution compared with their corresponding background values. According to the pollution indices, Hg and Cd were recognized as significant pollutants presenting moderate to high ecological risk. Combining principal component analysis and positive matrix factorization model, the results showed that traffic, industrial, agricultural and natural sources were the potential origins of trace metal(loid)s in this area, with contribution rates of 39.93%, 25.92%, 10.53% and 23.62%, respectively. Non-carcinogenic risks were all negligible, while the carcinogenic risk of As was higher than the limit (1 × 10−6). Moreover, children were more susceptible to trace metal(loid)s by ingestion which appeared to be a more important exposure pathway than dermal contact and inhalation. The contribution rates of different sources to non-carcinogenic risks and carcinogenic risks were similar among children and adults, while traffic and industrial sources have a significant impact on health risks. This study will give more insights to control the environmental risks of trace metal(loid)s in national parks.  相似文献   
5.
Spherical porous materials prepared from the emulsion template used in the water treat-ment have displayed a vast prospect,as the high surface area,abundant porous structure,convenient operation and excellent adsorption performance.But the tedious fabrication process,high consumption of organic solvent and surfactant limited the application widely.Herein,a facile and eco-friendly spherical porous adsorbent (SPA) is fabricated from the green surfactant-free (corn oil)-in-water Pickering medium internal phase emulsions (Pick-ering MIPEs) via the convenient ion crosslinking procedure.The Pickering MIPEs synergis-tically stabilized with the semi-coke (SC),which is the natural particle produced from the shale oil distillation,and sodium alginate (SA) has excellent storage and anti-coalescence stability.The as-prepared porous adsorbent possessed the abundant pore structure,which provided favorable conditions for effective mass transfer in adsorption,and could be tuned by varying the SA dosage.The saturation adsorption capacities of Pb(Ⅱ) and Cd(Ⅱ) can be achieved with 460.54 and 278.77 mg/g within 45 min at 25℃,respectively.Overall,this study supplied a viable and eco-friendly route for fabricating the spherical porous adsorbent with a tunable porous structure for heavy metal ion wastewater.  相似文献   
6.
天山北坡经济带土壤重金属来源及污染评价   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
为定量识别与评价天山北坡经济带中奇台、吉木萨尔、阜康等地区土壤重金属来源与生态风险,对该区域171个表层土壤中Zn、Cu、Cr、Pb、Hg、As和Cd7种常见重金属的含量进行测定.运用统计学方法、主成分分析、正定矩阵因子分解(PMF)与潜在生态风险指数进行重金属污染程度评价以及来源分析.结果表明,研究区土壤Zn、Cu与Cr之外,Pb、Hg、As和Cd分别超过了新疆土壤背景值4.1、2.0、8.0和48.0倍;与国家土壤重金属风险筛选值相比,Zn、Cr和Hg浓度在安全范围内,Cu与Pb有少部分样点污染较严重,超出筛选值,As与Cd平均值分别超出筛选值的3.09倍与19.17倍.污染来源分析结果显示研究区土壤中的重金属元素主要来自于燃煤源、交通运输、大气降尘、农工业排放和自然因素.生态风险评价结果分析表明,Zn、Cu、Cr和Pb处于轻微风险状态;Cd处于极高风险水平;73.68%的Hg处于中等风险,18.71%处于高风险;43.86%的As生态风险处于中等风险,51.46%处于高风险.综合潜在生态指数介于472~2575.69,Cd对综合潜在生态指数贡献率达到了89.24%,其次是As与Hg,表明研究区Cd对土壤生态环境危害很大,As与Hg也需要特别引起重视.  相似文献   
7.
In this study, concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were determined in road dusts collected from different locations in Dhaka to assess source, contamination status and health risk. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to determine Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb and their mean concentrations were 162.27 ± 29.46, 721.18 ± 180.14, 35.65 ± 12.55, 104.56 ± 128.33, 515.32 ± 321.90, BDL, and 342.82 ± 591.20 mg/kg, respectively. Among the heavy metals, highest concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb were found at urban sites-7 (municipal waste dumping) and 8 (medical waste incineration). Highest concentration of Cr followed by Cu and Zn was found at site-5 (Tejgaon, urban). Principal component analysis revealed that anthropogenic activities are the potential sources for Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb while earth crust for Mn. Pollution index and pollution load index results suggested that all the sites were contaminated and/or degraded by Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb except sites-9 (urban), 10 (sub-urban), 11 (rural) while sites-7 and 8 (urban) were extremely degraded. For noncarcinogenic health risk, hazard quotient values for dermal were higher compared to that of inhalation/ingestion. Though hazard index values were less than 1 at all the sites, these were at least one order of magnitude higher for children group than that of adult group, thus the children group may face more noncarcinogenic health risk at sites-7 and 8. Values of incremental lifetime cancer risk were from 10−9 to 10−11 showed no carcinogenic health risk by road dusts contaminated with the heavy metals.  相似文献   
8.
Heavy metal distribution in medicinal plants is gaining importance not only as an alternative medicine, but also for possible concern due to effects of metal toxicity. The present study has been focused on emphasizing the heavy metal status and bioaccumulation factors of V, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se (essential metals) and Cr, Ni, Cd, As and Pb (potentially toxic metals) in medicinal plants grown under two different environmental conditions e.g., near to Khetri copper mine and those in fertile soils of Haridwar, both in India, using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (relative method) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The copper levels in the medicinal plants from Khetri were found to be 3-4 folds higher (31.6–76.5 mg kg?1) than those from Haridwar samples (7.40–15.3 mg kg?1), which is correlated with very high copper levels (763 mg kg?1) in Khetri soil. Among various heavy metals, Cr (2.60–5.92 mg kg?1), Cd (1.47–2.97 mg kg?1) and Pb (3.97–6.63 mg kg?1) are also higher in concentration in the medicinal plants from Khetri. The essential metals like Mn (36.4–69.3 mg kg?1), Fe (192–601 mg kg?1), Zn (24.9–49.9 mg kg?1) and Se (0.13–0.91 mg kg?1) and potentially toxic metals like Ni (3.09–9.01 mg kg?1) and As (0.41–2.09 mg kg?1) did not show much variations in concentration in the medicinal plants from both Khetri and Haridwar. The medicinal plants from Khetri, e.g., Ocimum sanctum, Cassia fistula, Withania somnifera and Azadirachta Indica were found rich in Ca and Mg contents while Aloe barbadensis showed moderately high Ca and Mg. Higher levels of Ca-Mg were found to correlate with Zn (except Azadirachta Indica). The bioaccumulation factors (BAFS) of the heavy metals were estimated to understand the soil-to-plant transfer pattern of the heavy metals. Significantly lower BAF values of Cu and Cr were found in the medicinal plants from Khetri, indicating majority fraction of these metals are precipitated and were immobilized species unsuitable for plant uptake. Overall, Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) showed very high metal bioaccumulation.  相似文献   
9.
针对电镀污泥脱水过程中金属离子大量溶出带来的处理难题,以四甲基乙二胺、二硫化碳为主要原料,以氢氧化钾为引发剂,采用聚合法制备了一种脱水稳定剂,并考察了稳定剂投加量、污泥pH值、反应温度和反应时间对电镀污泥离心脱水时重金属溶出的影响。结果表明,在稳定剂投加量(稳定剂与污泥的质量比)为1%、反应温度为20℃、pH=1、反应时间为30 min、转速为3 000 r/min条件下对含Ni(Ⅱ)电镀污泥离心脱水后,Ni(Ⅱ)脱水稳定率达96.88%,且脱水稳定剂对混合电镀污泥中Ni(Ⅱ)、Cu(Ⅱ)的选择性大于Zn(Ⅱ)。脱水稳定剂的脱水稳定机理是其中的二硫代氨基甲酸盐与重金属离子M(Ⅱ)(Ni(Ⅱ)、Cu(Ⅱ)、Zn(Ⅱ)等)形成配位键,从而形成稳定的交联网状结构,达到化学稳定,实现了离心脱水极少重金属离子溶出(即脱水稳定)的效果。所合成的脱水稳定剂可广泛用于含镍、铜、锌等金属离子的电镀污泥脱水处理。  相似文献   
10.
复合菌系RXS中木质纤维素降解酶类分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
复合菌系RXS能分泌多种木质纤维素降解酶,为探究这些酶在木薯渣降解中的作用,对RXS的培养时间、酶作用的温度和pH值,以及添加金属离子对酶活性和降解效果的影响进行了研究。结果表明,在培养48 h后,木聚糖酶(Xylanase)、滤纸酶(FPAase)和内切葡聚糖酶(CMCase)酶活性均达到最大值(分别为56.02 U/m L、3.14U/m L和6.78 U/m L),pH=6.0(FPAase和Xylanase的最适pH值)、温度为55℃(FPAase和CMCase酶活性最高)条件下,RXS酶液处理可使木薯渣的失重率达到18.78%,纤维素和半纤维素质量分数分别由31.46%和20.19%下降到22.12%和12.23%。添加Cu~(2+)有效地抑制了酶液中FPAase和Xylanase的酶活性,木薯渣几乎不降解,纤维素和半纤维素组分质量分数基本不发生变化;分别添加Co~(2+)和Zn~(2+)时,对3种酶均有一定程度的抑制,木薯渣失重率仅为3.29%和4.70%;分别添加Fe~(2+)、Mg~(2+)时,FPAase酶活性被抑制,Xylanase与CMCase共同降解底物,木薯渣失重率分别达12.77%和15.81%,纤维素和半纤维素质量分数明显降低。研究表明,Xylanase与CMCase是复合菌系中降解木薯渣的关键酶,其协同作用可使木薯渣有效降解。  相似文献   
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