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1.
化学物质对室内空气的污染   总被引:21,自引:0,他引:21       下载免费PDF全文
随着国内人民生活水平的提高,百姓对居室内标准的要求越来越高。装修材料含有一定的有害化学物质,可使室内不同程度地受其污染,直接影响居民的身体健康,这已引起各发达国家和国内有关部门的重视。文章主要就室内化学物质的来源、种类、污染现状和对人体健康的影响作了简要概述,同时还介绍了室内空气中化学物质的简易测试方法。  相似文献
2.
城市环境铅污染及其对人体健康的影响   总被引:19,自引:5,他引:14       下载免费PDF全文
综述了城市土壤和大气环境中铅的污染特征及食品和饮水中的铅污染水平,探讨了人体铅暴露的途径及城市环境铅污染对儿童健康的危害.提出应加强城市环境铅污染的调查研究,开展人体铅暴露的潜在风险评价,为保证城市居民健康安全提供科学依据.  相似文献
3.
环境中氡水平及其对人体健康危害   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4  
简介了环境中氡的水平、污染来源、变化规律、对人体的健康危害及防治措施。 并提示,新疆环境中氡的调查研究应引起有关部门的重视,对于氡及子体致癌机理、 多因素的综合 影响及危险估计等都待深入研究以及加紧氡的测量方法的研制。  相似文献
4.
室内甲醛污染及对人体健康的影响   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
通过对三种不同类型居室内甲醛监测表明,甲醛浓度与室内装饰、吸烟和燃料的不完全燃烧有关.兰州地区夏季室内甲醛超标率高,为41.0%~51.3%.室内主要污染物除TSP以外,甲醛居第2位,且一天中浓度最高值在中午.新建居室比普通居室甲醛浓度高,在所有情况下,室内浓度高于室外.  相似文献
5.
简述了冶炼行业污染场地风险管理和风险评估流程。在借鉴国内外相关经验和教训的基础上,结合我国冶炼行业的特点,提出了基于层次性人体健康风险评估的冶炼行业污染场地风险管理与决策框架体系,利用该框架体系,通过层次性风险评估,可以筛选风险大的场地进行重点监管,并采取有针对性的措施防治污染扩散及消除对人体和生态环境的风险,从而经济有效地实现对冶炼行业污染场地的监管。  相似文献
6.
化学物质对室内空气的污染(续前)   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
随着国内人民生活水平的提高,百姓对居室内装修标准的要求越来越高。装修材料含有一定的有害化学物质,可使室内不同程度地受其污染,直接影响居民的身体健康,这已引起各发达国家和国内有关部门的重视。文章主要就室内化学物质的来源、种类、污染现状和对人体健康的影响作了简要概述,同时还介绍了室内空气中化学物质的简易测试方法。  相似文献
7.
Rethinking human health impact assessment   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Most EIA programs around the world require the consideration of human health impacts. Yet relatively few EIA documents adequately address those impacts. This article examines how, why, and to what extent health impacts are analyzed in environmental impact assessments in the U.S. An empirical study of 42 environmental impact statements found that more than half contained no mention of health impacts. In the others, health impacts were analyzed narrowly, if at all, using risk assessment to quantify the carcinogenic potential of a single substance over a single generation. This analytic focus overlooks other significant morbidity and mortality risks, cumulative and intergenerational effects, and broader determinants of health. This article investigates these problems and provides recommendations to improve human health impact assessment, using strategic environmental assessment, qualitative health data, health outcomes in addition to cancer, and a precautionary approach to risk.  相似文献
8.
Ambient particles vary greatly in their ability to affect visibility, climate and human health. The fine fraction of aerosol is responsible for greater and wider effects on human health; thus, investigation of this fraction is very important. Continuous measurements of PM2.5 (particulate matter below 2.5 μm in size) concentrations at the Preila monitoring station started in 2003. During a period of 2 years, the episodes of high daily and semi-hourly concentrations of PM2.5 were measured. These episodes did not depend on the season or time of day. The substantial role of long-range transport of pollutants to these increases in concentration was shown using chemical and statistical analysis. It was found that most of the severe episodes occurred when air masses came from a specific site besides it was established that air masses of different origin were characterized by different mixing layer depth. Lower mixing depth was observed in air masses characterized by higher observed concentrations at the measuring site and vice versa. PM2.5 concentrations showed diurnal and seasonal variations whose pattern reflected the regional origin of the aerosol. The regional pollution level was evaluated by the statistical analysis of PM2.5 concentrations. The background annual average of PM2.5 mass concentration for the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea was 15.1 ± 0.8 μg m−3.  相似文献
9.
It is known that fugitive dust can cause human health and environmental problems, alone or in combination with other air pollutants. These problems are referred to as ‘external costs’ that have been traditionally ignored. However, there is a growing interest towards quantifying externalities to assist policy and decision-making. With this in mind, the present study aimed at discussing the environmental regulations that deal with fugitive dust, the impact of fugitive dust on human health and global climate system, and the available methods for calculating fugitive dust externalities. The damage cost associated with human health and global environmental problems was predicted based on the environmental strategy priority model. The damage cost estimated by the model ranged from 40 to 374 EUR/kg of emitted fugitive dust with a mean value of 120 EUR/kg of emitted fugitive dust. It was also found that PM2.5 and PM10 have contributed to about 60% and 36% of the estimated damage cost, respectively. The remaining 4% was attributed to both nitrate and sulfate aerosols.  相似文献
10.
采集上海市城区和郊区2个典型站位的大气颗粒物样品,以二氯甲烷作萃取溶剂,采用索氏抽提法萃取分离吸附在颗粒物表面的稳定自由基,并利用电子自旋共振波谱技术(ESR)分析测定其种类和浓度。结果表明,测试样品的波谱特征表现为显著的三重信号峰,且g因子值均为2.002 7~2.004 7,通过与醌类物质的碱性饱和溶液ESR图谱比对,可以推断颗粒物表面至少吸附一种邻位半醌自由基。同时,通过锰标定量的方式估算了闵行和普陀2个采样点颗粒物样品表面的半醌自由基浓度,闵行采样点TSP、PM10和PM2.5表面半醌自由基的平均浓度分别为5.02×105、5.54×105、9.43×105 g-1,而普陀采样点的平均浓度分别为2.02×105、3.50×105、7.16×105 g-1。  相似文献
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