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1.
黄土高原沟壑区土地景观空间格局遥感分析   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
应用遥感图像采集信息,在GIS支持下,建立空间信息库,进行嵌块大小、分维数、形状指数、优势度、多样性、相对丰富度、破碎度等指标计算,研究了黄土高原沟壑区淳化县泥河沟流域土地景观空间格局特征。结果表明,本区域景观类型比较简单,景观多样性比较低。建议在本区域特别是在沟缘线上下两侧,打埝修梯,植树造林,建筑成沿沟沿缘线数十米宽的生态廊道和景观网络,增加景观类型,提高景观多样性,进一步控制水土流失,不断改  相似文献
2.
利用“3S”技术及CA-Markov模型,按照是否实施跨流域调水工程2种预案情况,以2005年为起始时刻,对新疆艾比湖流域平原区2020年景观格局进行模拟预测。结果显示:在调水工程未实施的情况下,2020年研究区的生态环境将进一步恶化,其突出表现为艾比湖湖泊水面将持续萎缩、裸露湖底盐漠面积进一步扩大,水资源短缺及生态环境恶化的结果将严重制约研究区社会经济的发展;在调水工程实施的情况下,2020年研究区内艾比湖湖泊水面将稳定增加至800 km^2以上、裸露湖底盐漠面积相应有所减少,生态环境恶化趋势得到改善,区域水资源短缺问题将有所缓解,可有效地促进研究区内社会经济的发展。  相似文献
3.
基于RS/GIS的大辽河口湿地景观格局时空变化研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
基于1988、1995、2001和2007年的四期TM数据,应用GIS/RS技术与景观格局分析软件FRAGSTATS,定量分析大辽河口地区湿地景观格局的动态变化。结果表明,自1988年以来,大辽河口地区的湿地面积逐年增加,湿地景观多样性指数和均匀度指数呈现先降后升的趋势,景观破碎化程度增强。湿地类型变化主要表现在大量的自然湿地转化为人工湿地或人工景观,具体表现在转化为建筑用地、水稻田、养殖区。1988~1995年期间,大辽河口地区的环境质量下降,该地区生物生活环境的多样性降低,造成了一些物种种群数量的减少甚至消失;但是自1995年以后,该地区的景观多样性和均匀性升高,抗干扰能力增强,环境质量有所提高。研究区湿地景观格局的动态变化主要是受自然条件和人为活动干扰共同作用的结果。  相似文献
4.
Zhalong National Nature Reserve in the northeast of China is a large wetland and a habitat of hundreds species of fauna and flora. The rare red-crowned crane is one kind of endangered birds in it. Recently, Zhalong wetland is shrinking and it encounters many problems including occasional fires, bad water quality, human activities, etc. In order to find out a proper way to protect and restore the wetland, this study, using a geographic information system, the global positioning system and remote sensing techniques, analyses the spatial characteristics of the changes in marsh landscape pattern and examines the driving factors for these changes. Data sources include 8 Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite images of Zhalong area in the period of 1986–2002 and the investigation information on site. Based on the analysis of changes of marsh area and annual precipitation during the 16 years, it is found that there is a close correlation between annual precipitation and marsh area. It means that climate is one of driving factors of marsh pattern changes. To understand influences of other kinds of land uses on marsh spatial distribution in Zhalong wetland, this paper analyses the relationship between marsh and different kinds of land uses, such as water surface, residential area, farmland, salina land and grass land, respectively. According to the patch analysis theory, a fragmental index and a fractal dimension of the marsh are calculated with perimeter-area method. The results indicate that the marsh pattern is affected by human activities significantly. In addition, the location alteration of marsh centroid point over the 16 years is studied. The movement trace of marsh centroid point is concerned with different hydrological situation in different areas of the wetland. In summary the characteristics of the marsh landscape pattern evolution during the 16 years are affected by multiple driving factors. The main driving factors are climate, human activities, distribution of other kinds of land uses and hydrological situation in different areas.  相似文献
5.
土地利用景观格局对信江水质的影响   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
利用GIS空间分析与统计方法,从景观尺度和类型尺度两方面分析了流域景观格局空间分异对河流高锰酸盐指数(CODMn)、氨氮、总氮(TN)、化学需氧量(CODCr)的影响。信江流域的景观组成对CODMn、氨氮、TN、CODCr浓度存在显著影响,耕地和建设用地的面积比例与各项指标浓度间存在显著正相关,林地与各指标浓度存在显著负相关。各项指标在流域上游变化不大,而在流域的下游变化显著。从景观尺度上看,流域景观以少数大斑块为主或同一类型的斑块高度连接时,河流中CODMn、氨氮、TN、CODCr浓度较低,水质较好。从流域类型尺度上看,各类型的景观结构对河流中CODMn、氨氮、TN、CODCr浓度影响不同,建设用地以及耕地的集中大面积彼此相临的连片分布会导致河流中CODMn、氨氮、TN、CODCr等浓度的升高,而林地则表现出相反的效应。  相似文献
6.
平顶山地区景观格局动态特征及驱动力分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
以平顶山地区为研究对象,利用平顶山地区1992年Landsat-TM影像和2006年中巴资源卫星遥感影像,运用景观生态学原理,借助遥感和GIS技术,选取景观多样性、景观优势度、景观均匀度、景观破碎度等指标指数进行分析,揭示平顶山地区近14 a来城市景观格局演变及其驱动力。研究结果表明:交通用地、工矿及居民点和耕地用地显著增加,林地、水域显著减少;除工矿及居民点外,该地区各类型斑块数量均有增加,其中林地增加最为显著;交通用地、工矿及居民点的破碎度降低,水域、林地、耕地的景观类型破碎度增高;耕地的分维数、形状指数呈下降趋势,而林地的分维数和形状指数呈上升趋势;平顶山地区景观多样性和均匀度都呈下降趋势,而优势度和破碎度增加;景观格局变化受人为因素影响较大,人口增加、经济发展、城镇化和工业发展是平顶山地区景观格局演变的主要驱动力。  相似文献
7.
于相毅  尚金城 《干旱环境监测》2004,18(3):137-140,162
以地理信息系统(GIS)为技术支持,以生态系统组成和空间结构为指标,对吉林省东部的生态建设分区进行研究。借助AreView分析工具,从吉林省2000年的1:100000土地利用数字化地图中,提取东部山区土地利用数据,进行生态系统的结构研究,并在此基础上划分出东部山区生态系统的生态经济类型,为土地资源的有效利用和生产力的合理布局提供决策支持。  相似文献
8.
We utilized landscape and breeding bird assemblage data from three Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) routes sampled from 1965–1995 to develop and test a grassland integrity index (GII) in a mixed-grass prairie area of Oklahoma. The overall study region is extensively fragmented from long-term agricultural activity, and native habitat remnants have been degraded by recent encroachment of woody vegetation, namely eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.). The 50 individual bird survey points along the BBS routes, known as stops, were used as sample sites. Our process first focused on developing a grassland disturbance index (GDI) as a measure of cumulative landscape disturbances for these sites. The GDI was based on five key landscape variables identified in an earlier species-level study of long-term avian community dynamics: total tree, shrub, and herbaceous vegetation cover indices, overall mean landscape patch size, and grassland patch core size. The GII was then developed based on breeding bird assemblage data. Assemblages were based on commonly used response guilds reflective of five avian life history parameters: foraging mode/location, nesting location, habitat specificity, migratory pattern, and dietary guild. We tested the response of 78 candidate assemblage metrics to the GDI, and eliminated those with no or poor response or with high correlations (redundant), resulting in 13 metrics for use in the final index. Individual metric scores were scaled to fall between 0 and 10, and the cumulative index to range from 0 to 100. Although broader application and refinement are possible, the avian-based GII has an advantage over labor-intensive, habitat-based monitoring in that the GII is derived from readily available long-term BBS data. Therefore, the GII shows promise as an inexpensive tool that could easily be applied over other areas to monitor changes in regional grassland conditions.  相似文献
9.
Monitoring environmental processes is becoming increasingly important wherever there is increasing population and economic development pressure placed on fragile environments. Remote sensing, digital image processing, and spatial analysis have proven to be useful technologies in both assessing and monitoring environmental change. In this study, they were used to assess desertification processes and change in Minqin County, China from 1988 to 1997. The results suggest that wind erosion was the dominant cause of desertification in more than half of the study area. Coupled with this were increases in salinization processes, affecting 33.62% of the land area in 1997. Overall, moderate desertification was found to be the dominant desertification grade (43.64% of total area), followed by extreme/severe desertification (26.15% of total area) in 1997. In addition, examination of landscape pattern changes indicated that desertification processes at the landscape level were becoming evident at increasing levels of fragmentation, complexity in shape, and isolation of patches. Major fluctuations in desertification type and grade were found at the fringes of oases, where an ongoing shift was taking place between cultivation, abandonment, and reclamation.  相似文献
10.
李磊  李艳红 《干旱环境监测》2013,(4):154-159,183
选取艾比湖流域1990年、2001年、2011年同期(9月)3期I.and.satTM遥感影像,基于归一化植被指数NDVI,提取植被覆盖等级图,利用ArcGIS9.3和Fragstas3.3对该流域植被景观的变化进行了分析研究。结果表明:1990—2011年,该流域植被覆盖度变化明显,低植被覆盖区和较低植被覆盖区都有所减少,分别由1990年的34.05%和32.94%减少到2011年的32.8%和24.06%;较高植被覆盖区和高植被覆盖区有所增加,分别由8.49%和5.20%增长到15.13%和9.83%,但水域面积退化明显,由1990年的525.9765km2缩小至494.9876km2,减少了30.9889km2,退缩幅度达O.4%;最大斑块指数(LPI)由17.04上升到21.10,香农多样性指数(SHDI)和香农均势度指数(SHEI)分别由1.5387和0.8588增长到1.6395和0.9150。表明艾比湖流域景观格局混杂程度愈来愈高,空间异质性在逐年加强,总体空间格局向破碎化趋势发展。  相似文献
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