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Within the European intensive forest monitoring programme, the native vegetation on permanent Level II plots has been monitored for visible ozone injuries. The main purpose of the programme is to assess the potential risks for the forest vegetation and the natural ecosystems at the intensive monitoring plots. During the first years of the programme the surveys were qualitative, reporting only the number and the name of the symptomatic species in selected Light Exposed Sampling Site. In 2003 a new plot design was tested, based on the distribution of a number of miniplots along the edge of the forest, so as to obtain quantitative findings about the occurrence and distribution of the symptoms. The problems that still persist are related to: (i) the forest edge assessed for ozone symptoms may have a different floristic composition from the Level II plot itself; (ii) the anthropic pressure and the disturbances affecting the forest edge alters the floristic composition; (iii) the variability of the plant composition in the forest edge, which makes comparability difficult between different sites; and (iv) the evaluation of symptoms in several species that have not yet been experimentally tested. Further difficulties are due to the fact that symptoms observed in the field are often aspecific and cannot, therefore, be attributed solely to the phytotoxic action of ozone. To improve the effectiveness of the European programme, it is necessary: (i) to individualise and select common sensitive plant species for homogeneous ecological regions; (ii) to enhance experimental activities to test the sensitivity of a large number of plant species.  相似文献
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Several local surveys on the submerged vegetation have been conducted in past decades along the Finnish Baltic coastal areas. Surveys have been carried out by using various methods,which make the temporal comparisons of the results difficult.The need of a joint programme for coastal phytobenthic monitoringis emphasised by the Nordic Council of Ministers and HELCOM. TheFinnish coastal phytobenthic monitoring programme complements theBaltic HELCOM monitoring programme (COMBINE). It is primarily designed to reveal the effects of eutrophication. The programmeincludes general principles for selection of monitoring areas aswell as a proposal for monitored habitats, communities and species. The need of evaluated and tested field methods, datacollecting, interpretation and data storage are addressed in theQuality Assurance part. The cost-efficiency is secured by integrating the phytobenthos programme with the coastal water monitoring for obtaining the supporting data such like salinity,temperature and nutrients. In the design of the monitoring programme a special interest is paid on areas with high protection values such as Natura 2000 or HELCOM's BSPA (Baltic Sea Protected Areas) or on aspects that would support the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive.  相似文献
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