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围绕新AQI标准下环境空气重污染预报预警工作的需求,全面优化升级了北京市空气质量数值预报系统。该系统集成了新一代天气模式WRF,并进一步发展污染源处理模型SMOKE,实现了点源、面源、机动车源等排放源高时空分辨率制作,同时紧追空气质量模型(CMAQ、CAMx、NAQPMS)新发展,实现在线源解析模块的业务应用。这一系统不仅在日常业务预报中有效提升了北京市空气重污染过程的预报准确率,还成功应用于2014年APEC会议、2015年纪念中国人民抗日战争暨世界反法西斯战争胜利70周年阅兵等重大活动空气质量保障工作中,满足了重大活动对空气质量预报预警的特殊需求,为进一步提高城市空气质量预报预警技术的发展做出有益尝试,并积累了丰富的经验。  相似文献
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In urban conditions, car exhaust gases are often emitted inside poorly ventilated street canyons. One may suppose however that moving cars can themselves produce a certain ventilation effect in addition to natural air motions. Such ventilation mechanism is not sufficiently studied so far. A similarity criterion relating the vehicle- and wind-induced components of turbulent motion in an urban street canyon was proposed in 1982 by E. J. Plate for wind tunnel modelling purposes. The present study aims at further evaluation of the criterion and its applicability for a variety of wind and traffic conditions. This is accomplished by joint analyses of data from numerical simulations and wind tunnel measurements.  相似文献
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A 2-D mathematical model to simulate the temperature distribution, coke formation, and change in residual extractable oil during remediation by low-temperature oxidation (LTO) process was developed. Simulation results indicate that the spacing between wells, pressure difference, and air-injection temperature and different well patterns influence the temperature distribution and consequently the level of remediation in the soil. The model results for coke formation and residual extractable oil distribution compared well with experimental results. The operating conditions—air-injection temperature of about 200°C, air-injection pressure of 6 to 10 kPa, air-extraction pressure of −110 Pa, and wells spaced 1 m apart installed in a nine-spot pattern—provide good remediation of hydrocarbons in soil by LTO process.
G. AchariEmail:
  相似文献
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Errors associated with the closed flux chamber technique, used to measure surface emissions from landfills, were investigated by using a combination of numerical modeling and laboratory studies. A transient-state, advective–dispersive–reactive model was developed and used in conjunction with its steady-state version to quantify the errors associated with closed flux chambers. In developing the model, all four major gases, CH4, O2, CO2, and N2, and the oxidation of CH4 to CO2 were considered. Laboratory experiments were conducted on a monolayered as well as a two-layered landfill cover system to calibrate and verify the model. The model was used to develop a plot of the percentage errors associated with closed flux chambers of different dimensions and surface flux rates.  相似文献
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2018年11—12月北京市发生了4次以PM2.5为首要污染物的重污染天气过程,为了分析数值模型对4次重污染过程的预报能力,将CMAQ模式提前1~7 d对北京市PM2.5的小时预报结果与观测结果对比,分别从离散统计和分类统计2个方面评估CMAQ模式对4次重污染天气过程的预报效果,并简要分析了偏差产生的气象方面原因。结果表明:CMAQ模式提前1~6 d对重污染天气过程的预报显示出良好的性能,为日常业务预报提供了可借鉴的参考信息,可较好地预报出PM2.5小时浓度变化趋势和浓度水平,离散统计结果显示提前1~4 d的预报结果好于提前5~7 d,相关系数r基本大于0.8,但有一定程度的低估趋势;分类统计结果显示不同预报时效预报准确率大于70%,探测准确率高于55%,部分时段可以达到80%~90%,对人工预报起到了良好的参考作用;输入的气象场的变化及其偏差对于重污染的起始时间、持续时间及清除时间有一定的影响,对相对湿度预报偏小和风速预报偏大是造成CMAQ模式低估的一个重要原因。  相似文献
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结合2018年10月15—20日国控站点监测数据、气象资料及激光雷达走航观测结果,对江淮地区一次重度污染过程进行了分析。利用拉格朗日粒子扩散模型和拉格朗日混合单粒子轨迹模型定性分析了区域污染来源,分别基于激光雷达和空气站实测数据提出了外来源占比的估算方法,结合嵌套网格空气质量预报模式(NAQPMS)的源解析结果,对比分析了外来源占比。以淮北市为例,结合NAQPMS和单颗粒气溶胶质谱的PM_(2. 5)在线源解析结果,对比分析此次污染过程的行业来源。结果表明,本地污染累积时段,主要以燃煤和机动车尾气混合源为主(占比70%);受北方污染输送时段,机动尾气占比显著升高,从19. 4%(16日00:00)升至66. 7%(17日11:00),淮北市、蚌埠市、合肥市3个城市污染物外来输送占比分别为52. 2%~70. 6%、48. 8%~58. 8%、41. 5%~59. 0%。  相似文献
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为了探讨三维变分法(3DVAR)对成渝城市群冬季PM_(2.5)重污染模拟的改善效果,采用3DVAR对成渝城市群2017年12月至2018年1月的空气质量数值模拟结果进行资料同化,对比评估嵌套网格空气质量预报模式(NAQPMS)原始数据与同化再分析数据的准确率,并分析成渝重污染特征。研究结果显示,3DVAR在PM_(2.5)、PM_(10)和NO_2的同化实验中均取得较好的改善效果,成渝地区检验站点各污染物相关系数(r)的平均提升比例依次为44%、90%和332%,r改善的站点占检验站点总数的比例分别为98%、100%和82%;检验站点均方根误差(RMSE)的平均下降比例分别为15%、37%和31%,RMSE改善的站点占检验站点总数的比例为65%、98%和84%。与原始模拟结果相比,同化结果能够更准确地反映成渝地区冬季重污染期间的PM_(2.5)和PM_(10)空间分布特征。  相似文献
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为了建立臭氧污染快速来源解析方法,提高解析结果的时空分辨率,以2017、2018年青岛市环境空气质量精细化管理实践为契机,利用CAMx-OSAT模型的污染源识别与追踪技术,预测解析未来时段特别是污染期间不同区域、行业的排放源对目标站点O_3浓度的贡献量和贡献率。结果显示:模拟的春、夏季2个时段青岛市的O_3来源主要为工业、电厂、交通、生活源,2个时段的模拟结果本地和外来源中工业源的贡献分别占62. 0%和65. 0%,交通源分别占24. 5%和16. 0%,生活源分别占8. 4%和8. 0%,电厂源分别占5. 0%和11. 0%,O_3高浓度污染时,工业源的贡献上升明显,青岛市的O_3浓度外来源的贡献约占40%~80%。该数值模型O_3来源解析及预测方法已成功用于青岛市的空气质量精细化管理及应急管控。  相似文献
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As part of the Danish NEAREX project the origin and variability of anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 over the Northeast Atlantic Region (NEAR) has been studied. The project consisted of a combination of experimental and modelling activities. Local volunteers operated CO2 sampling stations, built at University of Copenhagen, for 14C analysis at four locations (East Denmark, Shetland Isles, Faroe Isles and Iceland). The samples were only collected during winter periods of south-easterly winds in an attempt to trace air enriched in fossil-fuel derived CO2 due to combustion of fossil fuels within European countries. In order to study the transport and concentration fields over the region in detail, a three-dimensional Eulerian hemispheric air pollution model has been extended to include the main anthropogenic sources for atmospheric CO2. During the project period (1998–2001) only a few episodes of transport from Central Europe towards NEAR arose, which makes the data set for the evaluation of the method sparse. The analysed samples indicate that the signal for fossil CO2, as expected, is largest (up to 3.7±0.4% fossil CO2) at the Danish location closest to the European emissions areas and much weaker (up to ∼1.5±0.6% fossil CO2) at the most remote location. As the anthropogenic signal is weak in the clean atmosphere over NEAR these numbers will, however, be very sensitive to the assumed background 14CO2 activity and the precision of the measurements. The model simulations include the interplay between the driving processes from the emission into the boundary layer and the following horizontal/vertical mixing and atmospheric transport and are used to analyse the meteorological conditions leading to the observed events of high fossil CO2 over NEAR. This information about the history of the air masses is essential if an observed signal is to be utilised for identifying and quantifying sources for fossil CO2.  相似文献
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