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Scale is important to consider when investigating effects of the environment on a species. Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data and landscape metrics derived from aerial photographs were evaluated to determine how relationships of bird abundances with landscape variables changed over a continuous range of 16 spatial scales. We analyzed the average number of birds per stop (1985–1994) for five songbird species (family Cardinalidae) for each of 50 stops on 198 BBS transects throughout six states in the Central Plains, USA. Land along each transect was categorized into six cover types, and landscape metrics of fractal dimension (a measure of shape complexity of habitat patches), edge density, patch density, and percent area were calculated, with principal components used to construct composite environmental variables. Associations of bird abundances and landscape variables changed in accordance with small scale changes. Abundances of three species were correlated with edge density and one with component I, which subsumes initial variables of patch density for urban, closed forest, open forest, and open country. Fractal dimension and component II (summarizing amount of closed forest versus open country) were associated with the most species. Correlation patterns of fractal dimension with northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) and painted bunting (Passerina ciris) abundances were similar, with highest correlations at intermediate to small scales, suggesting indirectly that these species thrive in areas where local habitat conditions are most important. Multiscale analysis can provide insight into the spatial scale(s) at which species respond, a topic of intrinsic scientific interest with applied implications for researchers establishing protocols to assess and monitor avian populations.  相似文献
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High ethyl-benzene and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) were found in the soil samples and groundwater samples during a site environmental assessment for an old paint factory in the city Changchun, Jilin province of China. The target old paint plant had been in operation for near 30 years by manufacturing resin and house paint. Driving force for this study was to identify potential environmental contamination existing in this paint factory which is located next to a new resident area under construction. The assessment result would be used as baseline environmental data input for remediation plan when the factory site will be changed into potential resident area in near future. The analytical data from the soil samples from different area of the factory which had high exposure to operation showed that solid waster storage area was contaminated with high heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn) and waster paint storage areas were contaminated with ethyl-benzene, xylene and C9-C30 aromatic hydrocarbon solvent. The analytical data from the groundwater samples from different area of the factory showed that resin plant area and waster paint storage areas were contaminated with high concentration of naphthalene, ethyl-benzene and xylene which exceed the reference standard. Remediation action is recommended.  相似文献
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Systematic measurements of both Tributyltin (TBT) and Dibutyltin (DBT) in sediments along different locations in the inner zone of Bahía Blanca estuary were done. Two samples were taken near the main dry dock facility, at Puerto Belgrano naval base, in Argentina. TBT concentrations from non-detected to 170.3 ng Sn g−1 were measured in the inner region of the estuary, and higher one of 3,288 ng Sn g−1 near the dry dock at Puerto Belgrano. DBT values ranging between non-detected and 75.2 ng Sn g−1 were obtained along the principal channel, but extreme concentration of 1,645 ng Sn g−1 was measured at Puerto Belgrano. These values show that this estuary is affected by organotin pollution, mainly in areas of heavy shipyard activities.  相似文献
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以珠海码头作为调查船舶防污漆使用影响的对象,分析了珠海周边海域码头内表层沉积物与海水中的重金属含量,以Cu元素为讨论重点,对其进行污染程度与潜在生态危害的评估。结果表明,码头内表层沉积物中Cu含量明显高于码头外沉积物,离市区较近的香洲码头和金沙滩码头内沉积物受到中等至较高程度的Cu污染,海岛东澳岛码头海水易流通,因此受污染程度较低。使用Hakanson生态危害指数法对沉积物进行评估的结果为低潜在生态危害,但码头内海水中Cu元素含量已高于生态安全限值。  相似文献
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