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1.
简述了冶炼行业污染场地风险管理和风险评估流程。在借鉴国内外相关经验和教训的基础上,结合我国冶炼行业的特点,提出了基于层次性人体健康风险评估的冶炼行业污染场地风险管理与决策框架体系,利用该框架体系,通过层次性风险评估,可以筛选风险大的场地进行重点监管,并采取有针对性的措施防治污染扩散及消除对人体和生态环境的风险,从而经济有效地实现对冶炼行业污染场地的监管。  相似文献
2.
Risk assessments are the intellectual products of dedicated public health and environmental professionals. Like many other products, risk assessments carry with them the potential for both good and harm. This paper briefly examines some of the harms to which risk assessments have contributed, and then suggests that the legal “duty to warn” doctrine offers a logical and practical way to reduce some of these harms. The paper suggests concepts that could be incorporated into warnings accompanying every formal risk assessment as routine “boiler plate” addenda, just as other potentially harmful products, such as lawn mowers and cook stoves, are accompanied by warnings. Finally, the paper briefly examines the “Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice for Environmental Professionals” (promulgated by the National Association of Environmental Professionals) and shows that the suggested warnings are consistent with recommended practices for environmental professionals.  相似文献
3.
Integrated Assessment (IA) is the pursuit of a research program generated by the limitations of traditional forms of risk management. This claim can be justified by the following argument. Over the last decades, analysts and practitioners have brought to maturity a large array of tools for risk management. Most of them rely on combining judgments of utility with judgments of probability. This is the approach of the Rational Actor Paradigm (RAP). With many environmental problems, however, RAP‐based tools have run into considerable practical and theoretical difficulties. In response to these difficulties, a series of alternative approaches to practical risk management and to the theoretical understanding of risk have been elaborated. They try to embed the rational choices of individual actors studied by RAP into a broader framework of social rationality. This task can be approached by distinguishing situations where an actor holds unambiguous judgments of preference and probability from situations characterized by ambivalent judgments. RAP can handle the former, but not the latter. Problems whose management requires a combination of widely differing scientific disciplines are especially likely to involve ambivalent judgments of probability. The study of such problems constitutes the research program of integrated assessment. It involves three main tasks: developing IA models which can represent ambivalent expectations and evaluations, developing IA models which use such representations to study non‐marginal changes of social systems, and developing procedures of participatory IA which enable researchers to engage in an iterative exchange with various stakeholders. This revised version was published online in August 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
4.
Prioritization of projects within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Weapons Complex Clean-up Program, exemplified with data from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is quite sensitive to overall goals. Non-linear programming analysis of three alternative goals - mortgage reduction, terminal-period risk minimization, and current-period risk minimization - shows substantial differences in waste treated, risk reduced, and cost over a ten-year period. This revised version was published online in July 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
5.
Integrated Assessment (IA) is the pursuit of a research program generated by the limitations of traditional forms of risk management. This claim can be justified by the following argument. Over the last decades, analysts and practitioners have brought to maturity a large array of tools for risk management. Most of them rely on combining judgments of utility with judgments of probability. This is the approach of the Rational Actor Paradigm (RAP). With many environmental problems, however, RAP‐based tools have run into considerable practical and theoretical difficulties. In response to these difficulties, a series of alternative approaches to practical risk management and to the theoretical understanding of risk have been elaborated. They try to embed the rational choices of individual actors studied by RAP into a broader framework of social rationality. This task can be approached by distinguishing situations where an actor holds unambiguous judgments of preference and probability from situations characterized by ambivalent judgments. RAP can handle the former, but not the latter. Problems whose management requires a combination of widely differing scientific disciplines are especially likely to involve ambivalent judgments of probability. The study of such problems constitutes the research program of integrated assessment. It involves three main tasks: developing IA models which can represent ambivalent expectations and evaluations, developing IA models which use such representations to study non‐marginal changes of social systems, and developing procedures of participatory IA which enable researchers to engage in an iterative exchange with various stakeholders. This revised version was published online in August 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
6.
从环境风险管理出发,探讨危险废物对农业土壤污染的途径,提出土壤危险废物污染的风险管理内容和方法,初步建立辽宁省农业土壤危险废物污染的预警指标体系。  相似文献
7.
简述了区域环境风险及区域环境风险评估的内涵,以及国内外区域环境风险评估研究发展进程及现状,指出了现阶段区域环境风险评估存在的问题,提出应重点开展区域环境风险发生机理、定量表征区域环境风险方法等研究的展望。  相似文献
8.
对于企业的环境风险管理,目前多侧重于风险发生后的应急机制的建立。探讨了如何拓展环境风险管理的思路,结合项目管理和企业管理的全过程,将环境风险管理细化并融入对企业日常的环境管理和企业自身的日常管理之中,减少管理成本,从环保部门和企业双方将环境风险的发生概率降低到最低程度,实现整体安全。  相似文献
9.
以应急监测为例,介绍了环境监测站实施风险管理的基本思路。提出通过明确环境信息、建立风险准则、开展风险评估、实施风险应对等过程,开展系统性的风险管理,实现对各种风险的有效防范和控制。建议建立相应的组织机构和兼职的风险管理队伍,及时监督和检查风险管理流程运行状况,并在管理体系中加入风险管理要素,确保风险应对计划有效执行,实现持续改进。  相似文献
10.
分析了我国污染地块环境管理的现状,以及当前存在的法律法规和标准不健全、备案制还是信息公开的不确定、修复行业亟须引导规范等问题,提出了做好顶层设计、完善标准规范体系、加强对从业单位的管理等对策建议。  相似文献
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