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Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Gazipur landfill-site and its adjacent area to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentration of various physico-chemical parameters including heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) and microbiological parameters (total coliform (TC) and faecal coliform (FC)) were determined in groundwater and leachate samples. The moderately high concentrations of Cl, NO 3, SO2− 4, NH+ 4, Phenol, Fe, Zn and COD in groundwater, likely indicate that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they proved to be as tracers for groundwater contamination. The effect of depth and distance of the well from the pollution source was also investigated. The presence of TC and FC in groundwater warns for the groundwater quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demand for the proper management of waste in Delhi.  相似文献
北京市生活垃圾中重金属元素污染特性调查   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
采用现场调研取样和理化分析检测的方法对北京市城区垃圾中重金属含量水平、主要污染元素和主要污染物进行测定,并在调查基础上提出北京市城区垃圾重金属污染的防治对策,为废弃物减量化、无害化与资源化提供依据。  相似文献
中国固体废物的环境管理与环境监测技术现状   总被引:4,自引:2,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
为加强中国固体废物的环境管理和环境监测技术,回顾了中国自1985年以来制定的固体放心物环境管理法规制度以及1984年至1998年颁布的20多年家或行业的固体废物处置标准体系等固体废物的环境管理状况,着重论述了中国固体废物环境监测技术的发展历史与现状。指出经过20多年的努力,在固体废物环境监测技术与方法上初步形成了该领域框架体系,有固体废物的采样与制样技术;危险废物的有害特性试验鉴别方法,固体废物具  相似文献
To develop an effective waste management strategy for a given region, it is important to know the amount of waste generated and the composition of the waste stream. Past research has shown that the amount of waste generated is proportional to the population and the average mean living standards or the average income of the people. In addition, other factors may affect the amount and composition of waste. These are climate, living habits, level of education, religious and cultural beliefs, and social and public attitudes. This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in a suburban municipal area in Sri Lanka to determine the solid waste generation rate and waste composition based on field surveys and to determine the related socio-economic factors. A database was developed that included information on the quantity and composition of waste generated in a sample of households in the study area over a time period. The collected data was analysed to relate waste generation and composition data to various socio-economic factors. Over 400 sample households were selected for the study using a stratified random sampling methodology based on municipal wards and property values. A technique that considers both the number of households in a particular income group (property value range) and the standard deviation of property values within a given income group was used to determine the appropriate sample size for each municipal ward. Through category and regression analyses, the quantities of waste and waste composition were related to several socio-economic factors. The paper describes the basis for the sample selection, the methodology adopted for data collection, the socio-economic parameters used for the analysis, and the relationships developed from the analysis.  相似文献
农村生活垃圾产生特征及分类收集模式   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
以南京市高淳县的一个村为研究对象,依托新建的农村生活垃圾分类收集系统,对该区域生活垃圾的产生量、组成成分及其动态变化进行了调查研究,从垃圾分类收集模式的运行效果和经济可行性对其进行了分析。结果表明,该地区农村人均垃圾产生量为0.4 kg/d ,但随季节有一定的波动,这主要是由食品类消费的季节性变动而引起。垃圾组成以有机垃圾为主,约占55%,可回收垃圾、其他垃圾和有害垃圾所占比例分别为30.5%、14.2%和0.34%。通过认真的宣传和指导,村民在较短的时间内基本都可以做到正确分类;垃圾分类收集系统的户均建设成本为21元,运行费用比分类收集前每户每月增加3.2元 。  相似文献
In this study, an integrated fuzzy-stochastic linear programming model is developed and applied to municipal solid waste management. Methods of chance-constrained programming and fuzzy linear programming are incorporated within a general interval-parameter mixed-integer linear programming framework. It improves upon the existing optimization methods with advantages in uncertainty reflection, data availability, and computational requirement. The model can be used for answering questions related to types, times and sites of solid waste management practices, with the objective of minimizing system costs over the planning horizon. The model can effectively reflect dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of municipal waste management systems. In its solution process, the model is transformed into two deterministic submodels, corresponding to upper and lower bounds of the desired objective function values under a given significance level, based on an interactive algorithm. Results of the method's application to a hypothetical case indicate that reasonable outputs have been obtained. It demonstrates the practical applicability of the proposed methodology.  相似文献
加速溶剂萃取-高效液相色谱法测定固体废物中多环芳烃   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
建立了固体废物中多环芳烃的快速溶剂萃取(ASE)-高效液相色谱(HPLC)检测方法。加速溶剂萃取仪在温度100℃、压强1.05 MPa条件下,以体积比1:1的丙酮和二氯甲烷为萃取剂,萃取5 min,萃取液采用固相萃取柱或凝胶色谱净化。灰渣和污泥中的PAHs的方法检出限分别为1.03~1.96 μg/kg和4.71~7.04 μg/kg,相对标准偏差分别为4.0%~13.8%和3.3%~13%,加标回收率分别为73.2%~89.8%和67.7%~90.5%。  相似文献
我国固体废物监测中存在的问题及解决办法   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1  
本文针对我国废弃物监测中在采样、制样、浸出毒性实验、分析方法及标准制定方面存在的主要问题,进行了深入的探讨与研究,并提出了相应的解决办法和建议。  相似文献
In present study focus has been given on estimating quality and toxicity of waste with respect to heavy metals and its impact on groundwater quality, using statistical and empirical relationships between different hydrochemical data, so that easy monitoring may be possible which in turn help the sustainable management of landfill site and municipal solid waste. Samples of solid waste, leachate and groundwater were analyzed to evaluate the impact of leachates on groundwater through the comparison of their hydrochemical nature. Results suggest the existence of an empirical relationship between some specific indicator parameters like heavy metals of all three above mentioned sample type. Further, K/Mg ratio also indicates three groundwater samples heavily impacted from leachate contamination. A good number of samples are also showing higher values for and Pb than that of World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water regulation. Predominance of Fe and Zn in both groundwater and solid waste samples may be due to metal plating industries in the area. Factor analysis is used as a tool to explain observed relation between numerous variables in term of simpler relation, which may help to deduce the strength of relation. Positive loading of most of the factors for heavy metal clearly shows landfill impact on ground water quality especially along the hydraulic gradient. Cluster analysis, further substantiates the impact of landfill. Two major groups of samples obtained from cluster analysis suggest that one group comprises samples that are severely under the influence of landfill and contaminated leachates along the groundwater flow direction while other assorted with samples without having such influence.  相似文献
The increasing municipal solid waste (MSW) generation along with the high fraction of organic waste and a common disposal of open dumping is the current scenario in many areas in Thailand. As a response to this problem, the country’s Pollution Control Department (PCD) aims to reduce the MSW generation rate to less than 1 kg/capita/day, increase the collection efficiency, and improve the recovery of recyclables. For many years, more than 60% of the solid waste disposal system in Thailand has been carried out by open dumping. According to the survey conducted by this study, in 2004 there were 425 disposal sites (95 landfills; 330 open dumps) in Thailand and an estimated methane emission of 115.4 Gg/year was generated based on this practice. It has been estimated that the anticipated methane emission in Thailand will rise from 115.4 Gg/year to 118.5 Gg/year if the largest open dumpsites in provinces with no existing landfill are upgraded to sanitary landfill; and it will increase to 193.5 Gg/year if the existing sanitary landfill is upgraded to integrated waste management facilities. Moreover, Bangkok metropolitan have the highest methane emission (54.83 Gg/year) among all the regions in Thailand. The methane emission forecast of 339 Gg/year by 2020 (based on LandGEM methodology) provides a stimulus to create a comprehensive plan to capture and utilize methane as an energy source.  相似文献
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