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The spatial and temporal dynamics of physical variables, inorganic nutrients and phytoplankton chlorophyll a were investigated in Xiangxi Bay from 23 Feb. to 28 Apr. every six days, including one daily sampling site and one bidaily sampling site. The concentrations of nutrient variables showed ranges of 0.02–3.20 mg/L for dissolved silicate (Si); 0.06–2.40 mg/L for DIN (NH4N + NO2N + NO3N); 0.03–0.56 mg/L for PO4P and 0.22–193.37 μg/L for chlorophyll a, respectively. The concentration of chlorophyll a and inorganic nutrients were interpolated using GIS techniques. The results indicated that the spring bloom was occurred twice in space during the whole monitoring period (The first one: 26 Feb.–23 Mar.; the second one: 23 Mar.–28 Apr.). The concentration of DIN was always high in the mouth of Xiangxi Bay, and PO4P was high in the upstream of Xiangxi Bay during the whole bloom period. Si seems no obvious difference in space in the beginning of the spring bloom, but showed high heterogeneity in space and time with the development of spring bloom. By comparing the interpolated maps of chlorophyll a and inorganic variables, obvious consumptions of Si and DIN were found when the bloom status was serious. However, no obvious depletion of PO4P was found. Spatial regression analysis could explained most variation of Chl-a except at the begin of the first and second bloom. The result indicated that Si was the factor limiting Chl-a in space before achieved the max area of hypertrophic in the first and second bloom period. When Si was obviously exhausted, DIN became the factor limiting the Chl-a in space. Daily and bidaily monitoring of Site A and B, representing for high DIN: PO4P ratio and low DIN:PO4P ratio, indicated that the concentration of Si was decreased with times at both site A and B, and the dramatically drop of DIN was found in the end monitoring at site B. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that Si was the most important factor affect the development of spring bloom both at site A and B in time series.  相似文献
一种评估烟花爆竹燃放对大气PM2.5影响的新方法   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3  
基于北京市空气质量自动监测系统2013年2月常规污染物监测数据,提出了定量估算烟花爆竹燃放对大气PM2.5影响的污染物相对比值(PM2.5/CO)法。利用该方法研究表明,2013年北京除夕烟花爆竹燃放使PM2.5单站1小时平均浓度最大增加709 μg/m3(石景山古城监测点);全市24小时平均浓度增加88 μg/m3,达到159 μg/m3,空气质量由良好升级为重度污染。元宵节夜间烟花爆竹燃放使PM2.5单站1小时平均浓度最大增加469 μg/m3(海淀万柳监测点),全市24小时平均浓度增加54 μg/m3。除夕夜、元宵夜全市平均烟花爆竹PM2.5浓度超过75 μg/m3的时间分别为5、7 h,达到峰值后半衰期分别为0.9、1.7 h。城区烟花爆竹PM2.5浓度高于郊区,并可导致下风向郊区的PM2.5浓度显著增加。除夕、元宵节北京市区烟花爆竹排放PM2.5总量分别约为1.91×105 kg、1.17×105 kg。  相似文献
人类活动对济南泉域地下水水质的影响   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
济南泉域地下水从化学组分时间变化情况看,随着人类活动的增强,水体的总硬度、SO_4~(2-)、Cl~-和NO_3~-等指标均呈上升趋势,且近期和人类活动强作用区离子浓度升高的速度较快;济南泉域和大辛河流域地下水水质的空间变化,亦可以说明人类活动能够影响地下水水质的分布,人类活动强作用区地下水的水质劣于人类活动弱作用区。  相似文献
烟花爆竹燃放对北京市空气质量的影响研究   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
结合常规污染物浓度和PM2.5化学组分浓度,分析了2015年春节期间烟花爆竹燃放对北京市空气质量的影响。结果表明:烟花爆竹燃放会在短时间内造成严重的大气污染,其中对SO2、PM2.5和PM10的影响最为显著。除夕夜间良乡、官园和怀柔3个监测站点的PM2.5质量浓度峰值分别达730.5、343.4、762.2 μg/m3,为2月17-25日和3月4-8日(观测期间)平均值的5.2、3.1、7.1倍。烟花爆竹燃放对PM2.5组分中的SO42-、K+和Cl-的影响最为显著,除夕夜间监测中心点位的SO42-、K+和Cl-质量浓度峰值分别达92.2、95.6、57.4 μg/m3,为观测期间平均值的4.5、10.5、6.8倍。烟花爆竹燃放产生的气态前体物和NO3-、SO42-、NH4+、OC等PM2.5二次化学组分在不利的气象条件下会发生化学反应和物理积累,造成PM2.5浓度升高,产生持续性的大气污染。根据各污染物与NH4+的质量浓度比推算得出,除夕、“破五”和元宵节3个时段烟花爆竹燃放对K+、Cl-、SO42-、SO2和PM2.5浓度的平均贡献率分别为78.4%、61.1%、37.4%、38.7%和30.1%。  相似文献
使用在线离子色谱分析了苏州市区春节期间PM2.5中水溶性离子.结果表明:春节期间存在2个空气污染高峰时段(初一和初五),其中初一凌晨PM2.5达到最高峰,小时质量浓度为571μg/m3;烟花爆竹集中燃放时段,PM2.5中K+、Cl-、Mg2+质量浓度明显上升,初-凌晨与腊月三十凌晨相比,K+、Cl-、Mg2+质量浓度分别增加了117倍、80.7倍、18.0倍;相关性分析表明,PM2.5中K+、Mg2+、Na+、Ca2+在烟花爆竹燃放时段可能具有相同的来源.  相似文献
三峡175米蓄水期间春季嘉陵江出口段藻类变化   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
为认识三峡大坝175m蓄水对春季嘉陵江藻类的影响,开展了春季嘉陵江出口段藻类活动频繁时期的现场调研。结果表明,与2007年春季相比,三峡大坝175m实验性蓄水期间,2009年春季嘉陵江出口段水位上涨、流速减缓、水体容量增大,营养盐受到一定程度稀释;硅藻为嘉陵江出口段绝对优势藻种,其中星肋小环藻与极小冠盘藻为水华藻种,星肋小环藻具有快速增长性,流速变缓不利于硅藻繁殖,致使总藻密度降低,总藻种数增加,其中绿、蓝、硅藻增加百分比较大,藻类多样性增大。  相似文献
利用北京市环境噪声自动监测系统数据对2007年~2009年春节期间北京市城八区居民区声环境质量进行分析,明确了节日期间鞭炮集中燃放时段,分析了该期间市区居民区噪声值的总体变化趋势;根据监测点周围环境特点将监测点分成4种居民区类型,进而分析了不同类型居民区所受鞭炮噪声的不同特征;通过噪声事件频谱图及事件录音回放,分析了鞭炮及烟花的不同频谱特性。  相似文献
Natural spring water has unique properties, as it is rich in minerals that are considered to be beneficial to human health. A survey of the microbiological quality of natural spring water was conducted to assess possible risks from the consumption of the water by visitors in recreational mountain areas located in Seoul, South Korea. The densities of total coliforms and Escherichia coli were measured during the spring and the summer of 2002 to investigate the presence of coliform bacteria in the drinking spring waters. Total coliforms were detected in all samples and the mean density of total coliforms was up to a maximum of 228 CFU/mL. Detectable E. coli was found in 78% of all samples and the mean densities of E. coli varied from a minimum of 0 CFU/mL to a maximum of 15 CFU/mL in all samples. Malfunctioning septic systems and wildlife population appear to be the main source of E. coli contamination. Presence of E. coli in natural spring water indicates potential adverse health effects for individuals or populations exposed to this water. The fecal contaminated spring water may present an unacceptable risk to humans if it is used as raw drinking water.  相似文献
The purpose of this study was to monitor and record the specific characteristics and properties of most of the important water resources in Dalmatia located in Southern Croatia for a period of 5 years (1998–2002) according to established standards for drinking water. The paper presents a detailed account of their chemical content, the classification and the concentration of salts. The bacteriological pollution levels are indicated by the total coliform bacterial levels (MPN coli/100 mL). The water characteristics are expressed by coefficients, which represent the ratios between water ingredients. The Ca/Mg eq ratio, SO4/Cl eq ratio and K1, K2 for bicarbonate hardness were calculated. The hygienic characteristics of the water samples were expressed by the total coliform bacteria estimation (MPN coli/100 mL), the permanganate consumption (KMnO4) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5). Karst waters in Dalmatia are moderately hard, the SO4/Cl ratio is 0.38–1.6, non-corrosive (K1 lower than 0.2) and not significantly mineralised (< 500 mg/L minerals). Sulphate waters are generally hard, the SO4/Cl ratio is higher than 1.6, K1 is 0.2–0.65. Marine waters are quite hard or hard, particularly at the river estuaries, the SO4/Cl ratio is lower than 0.38, and K1 is higher than 0.65. The groundwater and springs in Dalmatia are less polluted than surface waters. A majority of these have a geometric average value of MPN coli < 150/100 mL of water observed in 24 of 42 locations studied. The highest bacteriological pollution was found in nine locations where MPN coli > 1000/100 mL and moderate pollution was found in nine locations where MPN coli is between 150 and 1000/100 mL of water. The physical and chemical parameters determined for the most sources in Dalmatia are safe below the international permissible limits.  相似文献
One feature of climate change is the trends to earlier spring onset in many north temperate areas of the world. The timing of spring flowering and leafing of perennial plants is largely controlled by temperature accumulation; both temperature and phenological records illustrate changes in recent decades. Phenology studies date back over a century, with extensive databases existing for western Canada. Earlier spring flowering has been noted for many woody plants, with larger trends seen for species that develop at spring's start. Implications for ecosystems of trends to earlier spring arrival include changes in plant species composition, changes in timing and distribution of pests and disease, and potentially disrupted ecological interactions. While Alberta has extensive phenology databases (for species, years, and geographic coverage) for recent decades, these data cannot provide continuous ground coverage. There is great potential for phenological data to provide ground validation for satellite imagery interpretation, especially as new remote sensors are becoming available. Phenological networks are experiencing a resurgence of interest in Canada (www.plantwatch.ca) and globally, and linking these ground-based observations with the view from space will greatly enhance our capacity to track the biotic response to climate changes.  相似文献
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