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1.
解磷微生物肥料的研究与进展   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
磷是植物生长必需的矿物质元素之一,在土壤中易被固定降低其有效性,目前,研究和生产含有解磷功能的微生物有机肥料是转化土壤中无效磷、提高磷肥利用率的有效途径之一。叙述了解磷微生物犯料中微生物的种类、生态分布规律和影响高效解磷微生物选育的外部因素,概述了解磷微生物菌肥的应用和研究进展,探讨了解磷微生物肥料的应用价值。为解磷微生物未来的研究重点提出理论依据。.  相似文献   
2.
A survey was conducted at eight U.S. drinking water plants, that spanned a wide range of water qualities and treatment/disinfection practices. Plants that treated heavily-wastewater-impacted source waters had lower trihalomethane to dihaloacetonitrile ratios due to the presence of more organic nitrogen and HAN precursors. As the bromide to total organic carbon ratio increased, there was more bromine incorporation into DBPs. This has been shown in other studies for THMs and selected emerging DBPs (HANs), whereas this study examined bromine incorporation for a wider group of emerging DBPs (haloacetaldehydes, halonitromethanes). Moreover, bromine incorporation into the emerging DBPs was, in general, similar to that of the THMs. Epidemiology studies that show an association between adverse health effects and brominated THMs may be due to the formation of brominated emerging DBPs of heath concern. Plants with higher free chlorine contact times before ammonia addition to form chloramines had less iodinated DBP formation in chloraminated distribution systems, where there was more oxidation of the iodide to iodate (a sink for the iodide) by the chlorine. This has been shown in many bench-scale studies (primarily for iodinated THMs), but seldom in full-scale studies (where this study also showed the impact on total organic iodine. Collectively, the THMs, haloacetic acids, and emerging DBPs accounted for a significant portion of the TOCl, TOBr, and TOI; however, ∼50% of the TOCl and TOBr is still unknown. The correlation of the sum of detected DBPs with the TOCl and TOBr suggests that they can be used as reliable surrogates.  相似文献   
3.
东湖、汤逊湖和梁子湖沉积物磷形态及pH对磷释放的影响   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
文章采用淡水沉积物中磷形态标准测试程序(SMT)研究了东湖、汤逊湖和梁子湖沉积物中磷的形态分布,并比较了不同pH条件下沉积物磷释放特征的差异性。结果表明:东湖沉积物总磷质量分数最高,平均值1.232 mg.g-1,其次为汤逊湖(0.762mg.g-1),梁子湖沉积物总磷质量分数最低(0.572 mg.g-1);3个湖泊上覆水总磷质量浓度也表现出类似的变化规律,线性相关性分析显示上覆水中总磷质量浓度与沉积物总磷质量分数显著正相关。东湖和梁子湖沉积物总磷中无机磷和有机磷所占比例较接近,汤逊湖无机磷所占比例远低于有机磷。不同湖泊之间磷形态的分布并没有一定的规律性,湖泊的地理分布以及人为因素可能是造成磷形态差异的主要因素。当pH为2.0~7.0时,3个湖泊沉积物中溶解性活性磷(SRP)释放量均呈先增加后减小的趋势;当pH为7.0~12.0时,SRP释放量呈增加趋势。相关分析结果表明,SRP的释放与有机质的质量分数无显著相关性。方差分析结果显示3个湖泊沉积物在黏粒和粉粒组成上均没有显著差异(P>0.1),表明实验样品的粒径组成不是造成各个湖泊间磷释放差异的原因。不同pH条件下,SRP释放量与沉积物总磷质量分数显著正相关;酸性环境下,SRP释放量与酸式磷(HCl-P)的相关性优于碱式磷(NaOH-P),碱性环境下则刚好相反。  相似文献   
4.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) pepper (Capsicum spp.) germplasm collection contains several thousand members or accessions. Many of these species and cultivars have not been analyzed for their concentrations of ascorbic acid, capsaicin, and total phenolic compounds, which are important antioxidants having a number of benefits for human health. The objective of this investigation was to select candidate accessions of hot pepper having high concentrations of ascorbic acid, capsaicin, free sugars, and total phenols for use as parents in breeding for these compounds. Seventeen accessions of pepper from the core Capsicum germplasm collection (four accessions of Capsicum chinense; five accessions of C. baccatum; six accessions of C. annuum; and two of C. frutescens) were field grown and their mature fruits were analyzed for their antioxidant composition. Concentrations of these compounds tended to be higher in C. chinense and C. baccatum, than in C. annuum and C. frutescens. Across all accessions the concentration of total phenols was correlated with ascorbic acid (r = 0.97) and free sugars (r = 0.80). Concentrations of total phenols (1.4, 1.3, and 1.3 mg g?1 fruit) and ascorbic acid (1.6, 1.2, and 1.3 mg g?1 fruit) were significantly greater in PI-633757, PI-387833, and PI-633754, respectively, compared to other accessions analyzed. Total capsaicinoids concentrations were greatest (1.3 mg g?1 fruit) in PI-438622 and lowest (0.002 mg g?1 fruit) in Grif-9320. The great variability within and among Capsicum species for these phytochemicals suggests that these selected accessions may be useful as parents in hybridization programs to produce fruits with value-added traits.  相似文献   
5.
Although point and nonpoint sources contribute roughly equal nutrient loads to lakes, their relative role in supporting algae growth has not been clarified. In this research, we have established a quantitative relationship between algae-available phosphorus (P) and P chemical fractions in sediments; the latter indicates the relative contribution of point versus nonpoint sources. Surface sediments from three large shallow lakes in eastern China, namely, the Chaohu, Taihu and Hongzehu Lakes, were sampled to assess their algae-available P and chemically extracted P fractions. The algae-available P primarily comes from iron/aluminium (hydr)oxide-bound P (Fe/Al-bound P), 45% of which is algae-available P. The ratio of Fe/Al-bound P to calcium compound-bound P (Ca-bound P) indicated the relative contribution of point to nonpoint sources, with the point sources contributing the majority of increased Fe/Al-bound P in sediments. Therefore, the reduction of point sources from urbanized areas, rather than nonpoint sources from agricultural areas that primarily contribute to the Ca-bound P fraction, should be prioritized to alleviate cyanobacterial algal blooms (CyanoHABs) in shallow lakes with sediment P as a potential source to support algae growth. With these important results, we proposed a conceptual model for “P-pumping suction” from sediments to algae to aid in the development of the criteria for sediment P concentrations in shallow lakes.  相似文献   
6.
Numerous studies support that biodiversity predict most to ecosystem functioning, but whether other factors display a more significant direct impact on ecosystem functioning than biodiversity remains to be studied. We investigated 398 samples of the phytoplankton phosphorus resource use efficiency (RUEP = chlorophyll-a concentration/dissolved phosphate) across two seasons in nine plateau lakes in Yunnan Province, China. We identified the main contributors to phytoplankton RUEP and analyzed their potential influences on RUEP at different lake trophic states. The results showed that total nitrogen (TN) contributed the most to RUEP among the nine lakes, whereas community turnover (measured as community dissimilarity) explained the most to RUEP variation across the two seasons. Moreover, TN also influenced RUEP by affecting biodiversity. Species richness (SR), functional attribute diversity (FAD2), and dendrogram-based functional diversity (FDc) were positively correlated with RUEP in both seasons, while evenness was negatively correlated with RUEP at the end of the rainy season. We also found that the effects of biodiversity and turnover on RUEP depended on the lake trophic states. SR and FAD2 were positively correlated with RUEP in all three trophic states. Evenness showed a negative correlation with RUEP at the eutrophic and oligotrophic levels, but a positive correlation at the mesotrophic level. Turnover had a negative influence on RUEP at the eutrophic level, but a positive influence at the mesotrophic and oligotrophic levels. Overall, our results suggested that multiple factors and nutrient states need to be considered when the ecosystem functioning predictors and the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships are investigated.  相似文献   
7.
水生植物修复氮、磷污染水体研究进展   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
氮、磷是引起水体富营养化、导致水质恶化的重要因素,因此去除氮、磷一直是污水处理的重要任务.鉴于传统物理、化学方法存在的操作难、成本高、易产生二次污染等问题,人们越来越多地将目光转向利用水生植物去除氮、磷营养物质、净化水质上.介绍了近年来国内外应用水生植物修复氮、磷污染水体的方法、效果及其影响因素,探讨了水生植物净化污染水体的机制.针对目前研究中的不足,提出今后应在不同植物种类开发、植物组合优化以及植物的净化机制等方面加强研究.  相似文献   
8.
《环境化学》2012,31(7)
根据我国中路沙尘暴的影响范围和移动路径,应用颗粒物中磷的连续浸提技术,选择研究了8个站位的颗粒物样品中磷的赋存形态和分布特征.研究结果表明,各粒级样品中无机磷(IP)含量范围在300.16—1916.99μg.g-1,占总磷(TP)比率86.11%—99.84%,TP含量主要受IP控制,有机磷(POrg)含量远低于IP,彼此之间表现为负相关关系;沙尘粒子Y1—Y4(呼和浩特,2005年—2010年沙尘暴期间收集)的TP、IP、生物可交换磷(BP)和可交换态磷(Pex)含量远高于沙尘暴源地及沿途地区地表颗粒物,这与沙尘暴源地及影响区域磷污染状况及地质环境条件关系密切;粒径小于57μm的颗粒物样品的TP、IP、PCa含量均高于自然粒径颗粒物样品.  相似文献   
9.
磷酸钙盐法回收剩余污泥超声波处理上清液中磷的研究   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:0  
在污泥减量化处理中,细胞微生物中的碳氮磷等会释放到上清液中。为了对上清液中的磷进行有效回收,在前期研究的基础上,以生物厌氧好氧除磷(An/O)工艺的剩余污泥超声波处理上清液为研究对象,考察了磷酸钙盐(HAP)法的磷回收效果。结果表明:HAP法反应较快,5 min时反应基本完成;初始pH值在8.5~10.0时,回收率均可保持在较高水平;最佳钙磷比(Ca2+/PO34--P)为3.87。在以上最佳工艺条件下,总磷(TP)、正磷酸盐(PO34--P)的回收率分别达到88.4%、94.0%,同时对上清液中的有机物、氮也有一定的去除。  相似文献   
10.
为了解不同流域水陆过渡带氮磷的分布特征及其环境意义,对闽江上游、太湖西部和洪泽湖西部这3个研究区土壤及沉积物氮磷的总量和有效态特征进行了研究,分析了自然环境与人类活动方式对区域环境差异的影响.结果表明,太湖西部研究区土壤氮磷总量均高于其他两个流域,洪泽湖西部研究区沉积物氮磷含量均高于土壤.研究区有效态氮磷的分布趋势整体与总氮总磷分布趋势一致,太湖西部与洪泽湖西部的有效态氮磷占比高于闽江上游流域,沉积物有效态氮磷占比高于土壤.土壤及沉积物理化性质如pH值、有机质及铁铝氧化物对氮磷元素及其有效态的影响较大,但不同流域的影响程度存在差异.不同流域的自然环境及人类活动方式明显影响了滨岸带氮磷的分布,人类活动方式对氮磷形态的影响更为显著.  相似文献   
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