首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   10篇
  评价与监测   10篇
  2020年   1篇
  2017年   1篇
  2016年   1篇
  2014年   1篇
  2007年   2篇
  2006年   2篇
  2005年   1篇
  2000年   1篇
排序方式: 共有10条查询结果,搜索用时 130 毫秒
1
1.
基于光学遥测技术的合肥市气溶胶参数观测   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
为了解合肥市气溶胶光学特性参数,采用太阳光度计CE318对雾霾期间气溶胶进行监测并分析了气溶胶光学厚度(AOD)、Angstorm波长指数(α)、体积谱函数等气溶胶光学特性参数.同时采用多轴差分吸收光谱技术(MAX-DOAS)反演了雾霾期间二次气溶胶前体物NO2柱浓度并和固定点测量的颗粒物(PM)浓度进行了对比.分析表明,雾霾期间的气溶胶光学厚度比晴天高,且随波长的增加而减少.Angstorm波长指数在雾霾天气时平均值较高,表明合肥雾霾天气期间气溶胶粒子以细粒子为主.气溶胶前体物NO2浓度变化与雾霾天气空气中颗粒物含量(PM10、PM2.5等)变化一致性较好,表明二次气溶胶可能对气溶胶颗粒浓度有一定影响.  相似文献
2.
This paper presents the first analysis of vertical ozone sounding measurements over Pohang, Korea. The main focus is to analyze the seasonal variation of vertical ozone profiles and determine the mechanisms controlling ozone seasonality. The maxima ozone at the surface and in the free troposphere are observed in May and June, respectively. In comparison with the ozone seasonality at Oki (near sea level) and Happo (altitude of 1840 m) in Japan, which are located at the same latitude as of Pohang, we have found that the time of the ozone maximum at the Japanese sites is always a month earlier than at Pohang. Analysis of the wind flow at the surface shows that the wind shifts from westerly to southerly in May over Japan, but in June over Pohang. However, this wind shift above boundary layer occurs a month later. This wind shift results in significantly smaller amounts of ozone because the southerly wind brings clean wet tropical air. It has been suggested that the spring ozone maximum in the lower troposphere is due to polluted air transported from China. However, an enhanced ozone amount over the free troposphere in June appears to have a different origin. A tongue-like structure in the time-height cross-section of ozone concentrations, which starts from the stratosphere and extends to the middle troposphere, suggests that the ozone enhancement occurs due to a gradual migration of ozone from the stratosphere. The high frequency of dry air with elevated ozone concentrations in the upper troposphere in June suggests that the air is transported from the stratosphere. HYSPLIT trajectory analysis supports the hypothesis that enhanced ozone in the free troposphere is not likely due to transport from sources of anthropogenic activity.  相似文献
3.
The Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) onboard the European Envisat spacecraft performs continuous spectral observations of reflected, scattered and transmitted sunlight in various observation geometries. A unique feature of SCIAMACHY is the capability of probing the atmosphere in three different observation geometries:The nadir, limb, and occultation measurement modes. In nadir mode, column densities of trace gases are retrieved with a spatial resolution of typically 30× 60 km using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique (Platt and Perner, 1983). Alternating with the nadir measurement, vertical profiles of absorber concentration in the stratosphere are derived in limb and occultation. In this paper we present an overview over some applications of SCIAMACHY data in space-based monitoring of atmospheric pollution. The DOAS algorithms for the retrieval of total column amounts from nadir spectra are briefly described and case studies of pollution events are presented. We also illustrate the technique used to derive stratospheric concentration profiles from limb observations and show comparisons with other remote sensing systems. Special emphasis will be given to techniques, which take advantage of SCIAMACHY's different viewing geometries. In particular, we will discuss the potential and limits of strategies to infer tropospheric abundances of O3and NO2.  相似文献
4.
Tropospheric O3 has been implicated in the declining health of forest ecosystems in Europe and North America and has been shown to have negative consequences on human health. We have measured tropospheric ozone (O3) in the lower canopy through the use of passive monitors located in five woodlots along a 150 km urban–rural transect, originating in the large urban complex of Toronto, Canada. We also sampled foliage from 10 mature sugar maple trees in each woodlot and measured the concentration of a number of phenolic compounds and macronutrients. O3 concentrations were highest in the two rural woodlots, located approximately 150 km downwind of Toronto, when compared to the woodlots found within the Greater Toronto Area. Foliar concentrations of three flavonoids, avicularin, isoquercitrin, and quercitrin, were significantly greater and nitrogen concentrations significantly lower at these same rural woodlots, suggesting some physiological disruption is occurring in those sites where exposure to tropospheric O3 is greater. We suggest that foliar phenolics of sugar maple may be a biochemical indicator of tropospheric ozone exposure.  相似文献
5.
A quantitatively robust yet parsimonious air-quality monitoring network in mountainous regions requires special attention to relevant spatial and temporal scales of measurement and inference. The design of monitoring networks should focus on the objectives required by public agencies, namely: 1) determine if some threshold has been exceeded (e.g., for regulatory purposes), and 2) identify spatial patterns and temporal trends (e.g., to protect natural resources). A short-term, multi-scale assessment to quantify spatial variability in air quality is a valuable asset in designing a network, in conjunction with an evaluation of existing data and simulation-model output. A recent assessment in Washington state (USA) quantified spatial variability in tropospheric ozone distribution ranging from a single watershed to the western third of the state. Spatial and temporal coherence in ozone exposure modified by predictable elevational relationships ( 1.3 ppbv ozone per 100 m elevation gain) extends from urban areas to the crest of the Cascade Range. This suggests that a sparse network of permanent analyzers is sufficient at all spatial scales, with the option of periodic intensive measurements to validate network design. It is imperative that agencies cooperate in the design of monitoring networks in mountainous regions to optimize data collection and financial efficiencies.  相似文献
6.
Air pollution affects forest health through atmospheric deposition of acidic and nitrogen compounds and elevated levels of tropospheric ozone (O3). In 1985, a monitoring network was established across Europe and various research efforts have since been undertaken to define critical values. We measured atmospheric deposition of acidity and nitrogen as well as ambient levels of O3 on 12, 13, and 14 plots, respectively, in the framework of the Swiss Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research (LWF) in the period from 1995 to 2002. We estimated the critical loads of acidity and of nitrogen, using the steady state mass balance approach, and calculated the critical O3 levels using the AOT40 approach. The deposition of acidity exceeded the critical loads on 2 plots and almost reached them on 4 plots. The median of the measured molar ratio of base nutrient cations to total dissolved aluminium (Bc/Al) in the soil solution was higher than the critical value of 1 for all depths, and also at the plots with an exceedance of the critical load of acidity. For nitrogen, critical loads were exceeded on 8 plots and deposition likely represents a long-term ecological risk on 3 to 10 plots. For O3, exceedance of critical levels was recorded on 12 plots, and led to the development of typical O3-induced visible injury on trees and shrubs, but not for all plots due to (1) the site specific composition of O3 sensitive and tolerant plant species, and (2) the influence of microclimatic site conditions on the stomatal behaviour, i.e., O3 uptake.  相似文献
7.
While moving towards a flux-based approach, exposure-based ozone metrics are still a practical measure for summarising ambient air quality. Ozone hourly concentrations for the period 2000–2004 from sites in the Mediterranean Italy (≤600 m a.s.l.) were examined to define the O3 summary statistic in the area, and to determine how O3 exposure indices correlate to each other. Thirty-four of the most common O3 exposure metrics were calculated. The results show that background O3 pollution in Italy exceeds the European and North American standards. The exceedances of the target value, information and alert thresholds set by the 2002/3/CE Directive should encourage Italy to take the appropriate measures to reduce the risk. All the O3 exposure indices, except the maximum permissible ozone concentration (MPOC) for forests, point to the potential for negative effects on vegetation and human health across Italy. As indices evaluated significantly correlated with each other, we suggest use of the most biologically meaningful metric when summarizing air quality information.  相似文献
8.
2014年夏季6~8月利用地基多轴差分吸收光谱仪( MAX DOAS)在新疆绿洲城市乌鲁木齐市三道坝镇、库尔勒市西尼尔镇及博乐市84团农田区观测的NO2垂直柱浓度( VCD)数据,结合同期的气象数据分析了NO2 VCD的变化特征。研究表明:①NO2气体的日变化规律在乌鲁木齐市和库尔勒市农田区呈波浪式多峰特征,博乐市农田区呈明显的双峰形式,且峰值除了库尔勒市在午后外,乌鲁木齐市和博乐市均出现在早晚时段;②新疆绿洲城市农田区在夏季6月(3.327×1015 molec/cm2)的NO2 VCD最高,其次是7月(2.002×1015 molec/cm2),最低是8月(1.656×1015 molec/cm2);③NO2 VCD与气温、水汽压气象要素密切相关;由于城市间地势、格局的差异,库尔勒市的NO2浓度与风速呈显著正相关,乌鲁木齐市、博乐市的NO2浓度与风速相关性不显著。  相似文献
9.
基于Aura卫星臭氧监测仪(OMI)数据,分析了2011—2018年中国东部地区对流层NO2柱浓度的时空分布规律,以广泛而客观地验证NO2减排成效。结果表明:进入"十二五"以来,中国东部地区对流层NO2柱浓度快速下降,高值区域范围快速收缩甚至消失;华北平原、长江中下游平原污染相对严重,同时这些地区污染程度正在得到较快速的缓解;京津冀、长三角、珠三角是中国东部地区对流层NO2柱浓度相对最高、下降速度最快的典型区域;中国东部地区NO2减排取得的成效与产业转型升级、能源结构调整及严控移动源排放等政策措施密不可分。  相似文献
10.
基于郑州市2005—2015年的OMI遥感反演资料以及地面相关监测数据,研究了郑州市对流层NO2的时空分布特征,并利用灰色关联法对郑州市NO2柱浓度变化的主要影响因素进行分析。与地面观测数据对比检验显示,对流层NO2柱浓度年均值数据与近地面监测站NO2浓度的实测年均值数据呈显著的正相关,相关系数分别为0.884 6和0.940 2,表明OMI数据资料可以较好地反映地面NO2浓度的变化。郑州市的对流层NO2柱浓度在2005—2013年间呈现波动变化且2013—2015年NO2柱浓度显著减小的特征。季节变化上NO2柱浓度主要表现为冬季 >秋季 >春季 >夏季的特点。郑州市对流层NO2柱浓度的空间变化分布主要表现为由北部向南部逐渐递减的趋势,年际变化上高值区与低值区变化不够显著,中值区近年来不断扩大。灰色关联度分析结果显示,汽车保有量与对流层NO2柱浓度的灰色关联度最低为0.571,而标准煤消耗量、工业用电量以及采暖供热量与对流层NO2柱浓度的灰色关联度比较高,分别为0.956、0.828、0.862,即大气中工业过程及采暖期煤炭燃烧排放的NO2占较大比例,汽车尾气排放所占的比例相对较小。  相似文献
1
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号