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Mining activity in the North of Potosi (Siglo XX mine, Ingenio Catavi-Siglo XX, Pucro mine and Colquechaca mine) produces minewater containing high concentrations of heavy metals such as As (0.02-34 mg/l), Cd (45-11,600 microg/l), Cu (0.35-32 mg/l), Fe (42-1,010 mg/l), Pb(33-3,130 microg/l), Ni(20-4,320 microg/l), and Zn (1.1-485 mg/l), that exceed considerably the limit values. The rivers in the North of Potosi (Katiri and Pongoma) that do not receive minewater contain clear water with rather low heavy metal concentrations. These rivers and also other rivers contaminated with minewater, are tributaries of the Chayanta River that transports water with a high concentration of heavy metals such as As (6-24 microg/l), Cd (260-2,620 microg/l), Cu (205-812 microg/l), Pb(10-21 microg/l) and Ni(110-332 microg/l). These elements result from mining activity, as indicated by a comparison with rivers not contaminated by minewater discharges. Water of the Chayanta River, used all year long by the population of Quila Quila, (a village situated at about 75 km from the mining centers), for the irrigation of crops such as potato, maize and broad bean, contains heavy metal concentrations exceeding for several elements the guidelines for irrigation. As drinking water the population of Quila Quila consumes spring water with a generally acceptable heavy metal concentration, as well as infiltrated water of Chayanta River (which is also used in animal drinking troughs) with a high concentration of Cd (23-63 microg/l), exceeding the limit value for drinking water. The metal concentration is significantly lower in the infiltrated water than in the water of Chayanta River. Some technological solutions are suggested to improve the quality of the water used. Surveys carried out on inhabitants of the region, showed that many people present health problems, probably to be attributed to the bad quality of the water they consume and use for irrigation.  相似文献
Spectroscopic characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a large dam reservoir were determined using ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate spatial distribution of DOM composition after turbid storm runoff. Water samples were collected along a longitudinal axis of the reservoir at three to four depths after a severe storm runoff. Vertical profiles of turbidity data showed that a turbid water layer was located at a middle depth of the entire reservoir. The spectroscopic characteristics of DOM samples in the turbid water layer were similar to those of terrestrial DOM, as demonstrated by the higher specific UV absorbance (SUVA) and the lower fluorescence emission intensity ratio (F 450/F 500) compared to other surrounding DOM samples in the reservoir. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that higher content of humic-like DOM composition was contained in the turbid water. Fluorescence excitation–emission matrix (EEM) showed that lower content of protein-like aromatic amino acids was present in the turbid water DOM. The highest protein-like fluorescence was typically observed at a bottom layer of each sampling location. The bottom water DOM exhibited extremely high protein-like florescence near the dam site. The particular observation was attributed to the low water temperature and the isolation of the local bottom water due to the upper location of the withdrawal outlet near the dam. Our results suggest that the distribution of DOM composition in a dam reservoir is strongly influenced by the outflow operation, such as selective withdrawal, as well as terrestrial-origin DOM inputs from storm runoff.  相似文献
地下水采样方法比对研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
选取3种地下水采样方法开展方法比对研究。通过系统分析监测数据,指出了3种方法所采水样在基本水质参数、无机离子、金属、挥发性有机物以及感官类指标等项目监测上的显著差异,指出了各种方法的适用性并分析原因。结果表明:与贝勒管法、潜水泵法相比,低流速法有效地解决了采样操作过程中易产生的曝气问题;对井内水体扰动较小,降低了水样浊度;减小了井内水位的大幅度泄降,避免了不同层位间污染物的迁移及周边水和井内滞水的交叉污染;节约了场地操作时间和后期污水处理所需花费。因此,低流速法在采取代表性水质样品方面更具方法优势。  相似文献
多波长法用于减小浊度对水源水中甲醛测定结果的影响   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
比较了减小水样浊度对样品结果影响的各种方法,包括过滤法、双波长法、三波长法,3种方法均基于乙酰丙酮分光光度法,测定波长均为414 nm。结果表明,以480 nm为参比波长的双波长法所得方法检出限为0.027 mg/L,采用470 nm与360 nm、460 nm与370 nm、450 nm与380 nm 3对参比波长的三波长法测得方法检出限为0.025~0.028 mg/L,这些方法用于检测0.100 mg/L标准点样品时,检测结果RSD介于8.0%~8.6%。双波长法适合低浊度样品的直接分析,而浊度较高或双波长法测得结果大于方法检出限时,应采用三波长法进行定量分析,他们的使用有助于提高方法的准确度及减少工作量。用于地表水样品分析时,0.200、0.400 mg/L加标样品的回收率介于90.3%~101%,对应RSD介于0.0%~4.2%。  相似文献
无人监测船在城市内河水质监测中的应用   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
采用无人船监测技术结合镇江市内河水质状况普查工作,大于120 h的航行试验,总航行里程约为90 km,对建成区水体中的氨氮(NH3-N)、溶解氧(DO)、氧化还原电位(ORP)和浊度进行原位监测,结果表明,通过合理选择搭载相应的测量电极,无人监测船能够满足地表水测量数据准确度的要求,同时可实现研究区域的监测全覆盖,提升了地表水环境监测的工作效率。  相似文献
针对在线重金属分析仪中电源波动、水体浊度等干扰问题,提出一种新型的光路设计方案。实验表明,采用该设计的在线水质分析仪PhotoTek 6000的抗干扰能力大大提高,电源稳定性达到0.6%;同时当试样中浊度变化4个数量级时,测量结果与实际值的相对偏差小于2%。  相似文献
The temporal turbidity and surface temperature changes and effects of the 17 August 1999 earthquake in the İzmit Gulf, Turkey have been investigated using Landsat TM/ETM data. The gulf is in the Mediterranean–Black Sea transition climatic zone and is partially surrounded by green vegetation cover and degraded and densely urbanized-industrialized areas. Landsat TM/ETM data acquired in 1990–1999 confirms increase in turbidity. Turbidity is always low in the southern part and high in the northern part of the gulf, because the more urbanized and industrialized areas are located in the northern part. The Landsat-7 ETM data acquired in the same year (1999) shows seasonal changes in turbidity. Moreover, the two high turbidity and surface temperature anomalies, one of which is parallel to the 17 August 1999 earthquake surface rupture (east–west) and the other which is in the northwest–southeast direction were mapped from Landsat-5 TM data acquired the day (18.08.1999) following the earthquake in the east end of the gulf. On the basis of turbidity implying the sea bottom movement, it is possible to state that a second rupture in the northwest and southeast direction could have occurred at the sea bottom during the earthquake. The distribution of the seismicity centers and the orientation of the lineaments in the area support this finding.  相似文献
Phase I of the Kissimmee River restoration project included backfilling of 12 km of canal and restoring flow through 24 km of continuous river channel. We quantified the effects of construction activities on four water quality parameters (turbidity, total phosphorus flow-weighted concentration, total phosphorus load and dissolved oxygen concentration). Data were collected at stations upstream and downstream of the construction and at four stations within the construction zone to determine if canal backfilling and construction of 2.4 km of new river channel would negatively impact local and downstream water quality. Turbidity levels at the downstream station were elevated for approximately 2 weeks during the one and a half year construction period, but never exceeded the Florida Department of Environmental Protection construction permit criteria. Turbidity levels at stations within the construction zone were high at certain times. Flow-weighted concentration of total phosphorus at the downstream station was slightly higher than the upstream station during construction, but low discharge limited downstream transport of phosphorus. Total phosphorus loads at the upstream and downstream stations were similar and loading to Lake Okeechobee was not significantly affected by construction. Mean water column dissolved oxygen concentrations at all sampling stations were similar during construction.  相似文献
Atmospheric aerosols are an important contributing factor to turbidity in urban areas besides having impact on health. Aerosol characteristics show a high degree of variability in space and time as anthropogenic share of total aerosol loading is quite substantial and is essential to monitor the aerosol features over long time scales. In the present study extensive observations of columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD), total columnar ozone (TCO) and precipitable water content (PWC) have been carried over a tropical urban city of Hyderabad, India. Significant variations of AOD have been observed during course of the day with low values of AOD during morning and evening hours and high values during afternoon hours. Spectral variation of AOD exhibits high AOD at smaller wavelengths and vice versa except a slight enhancement in AOD at 500 nm. Anomalies in AOD, particulate matter and black carbon concentrations have been observed during May, 2003. Back trajectory analysis of air mass during these episodes suggested variation in air mass trajectories. Analysis of the results suggests that air trajectories from land region north of study area cause high loading of atmospheric aerosols. The results are discussed in the paper.  相似文献
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