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1.
道路交通噪声自动监测应用探讨   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
结合城市道路路网状况及实际噪声监测数据和历史实验数据,对道路交通噪声自动监测数据的有效性、监测点位布设进行了研究,对道路交通噪声监测点位优化提出建议。  相似文献
2.
OSPM - A Parameterised Street Pollution Model   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
For many practical applications, as e.g. in support of air pollution management, numerical models based on solution of the basic flow and dispersion equations are still too complex. Alternative are models that are basically parameterised semi-empirical models making use of a priori assumptions about the flow and dispersion conditions. However, these models must, be thoroughly tested and their performance and limitations carefully documented. The Danish Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) belongs to this category of parameterised models. In the OSPM, concentrations of exhaust gases are calculated using a combination of a plume model for the direct contribution and a box model for the recirculating part of the pollutants in the street. Parameterisation of flow and dispersion conditions in street canyons was deduced from extensive analysis of experimental data and model tests. Results of these tests were used to further improve the model performance, especially with regard to different street configurations and a variety of meteorological conditions.  相似文献
3.
堰槽式明渠废水流量监测数据有效性判别技术研究   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1  
针对缺少堰槽明渠废水流量监测数据有效性判别技术的现状,研究了计量检定期间对废水流量计的监督检查技术,设计了现场计量检定项目、流量计运行维护情况、生产工况的变化3个方面检查内容、8项检查指标,并分别提出了检查方法及检查结果的判定与处理,填补了中国废水流量自动数据有效性认定的技术空白,完善了废水流量监测的质控体系。开展的试点工作表明,该文提出废水流量计监督检查技术具有较好的实用性。  相似文献
4.
This research explores the boundaries of a valid application of contingent valuation as a method to value environmental changes. Recent criticism from social psychologists refers to unrealistic cognitive demands upon respondents. Criticism from economists point to the problem of measuring preferences in relation to non-use values. In this research the hypothesis is tested that the CV method in valuing goods with non-use value and with a complex content of information produces less valid results than with use values and non-complex content of information. Validity is tested across goods (sample survey: N=832). Results show that scope validity is ambiguous for goods with high content of complexity. Construct validity is not guaranteed for environmental changes with non-use values: Economic factors are not significant, only attitudes are relevant. Given the importance of WTP figures in cost-benefit analysis these results are of paramount importance for the trust in contingent valuation.  相似文献
5.
A Simple Model for Urban Background Pollution   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
A simple urban background pollution model is presented. Contributions from the individual area sources, subdivided into a grid net of a resolution of 2km × 2km, are integrated along the wind direction path assuming linear dispersion with the distance to the receptor point. Horizontal dispersion is accounted for by averaging the calculated concentrations over a certain, wind speed dependent wind direction sector, centred on the average wind direction. Formation of the nitrogen dioxide due to oxidation of nitrogen monoxide by ozone is calculated using a simple chemical model based on assumption of a photochemical equilibrium on the time scale of the pollution transport across the city area. The rate of entrainment of fresh rural ozone is governed by this time scale. The model is suitable for calculations of urban background when the dominating source is the road traffic. For this source the emissions take place at ground level, and a good approximation is to treat the emissions as area sources, but with an initial vertical dispersion determined by the height of the buildings.  相似文献
6.
Validation of Urban Emission Inventories   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Two emission validation methods are presented. The first method focuses on the precision of the emission factors and the accuracy of modelled traffic flows. Emission factors derived from the COPERT II methodology are compared with on-board emission measurements and modelled traffic flow rates are compared with observations. The second validation method focuses on the completeness of the inventory, i.e. coverage of all sources. The method compares measured pollutant fluxes in the urban plume with the downwind transported and dispersed emissions integrated over plume width and mixing height. Both methods seem to indicate that traffic emission factors used in the urban emission inventories show large uncertainties. Besides the lack of measurement precision this is mainly induced by external influence factors like driving behaviour and vehicle maintenance.  相似文献
7.
国内环境遥感监测指标验证方法研究进展   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
随着经济的快速发展,我国环境问题日益突出,环境治理已刻不容缓。卫星遥感技术的发展,为环境监测提供了有力的技术手段,并在环境监测领域发挥越来越重要的作用,在生态环境、水环境、大气环境等三个环境领域建立了环境遥感监测指标。然而,环境遥感监测指标验证工作相对较少,缺少规范化与标准化,未形成健全的验证体系。综述了目前国内具有代表性的环境监测指标验证方法,总结了验证中存在的问题,就其今后的发展方向,进行了有益的探讨。  相似文献
8.
污染源自动监测数据有效性影响因素分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
结合我国污染源自动监测现状,分别从技术、产品、建设、管理与环境等各不同角度,分析了各因素对监测数据有效性的影响,并提出了一些相应的建议与对策。  相似文献
9.
污染源现场监测真实性和法律有效性控制的几点做法   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
污染源现场监测中的客观真实性和法律有效性是环境监测质量保证的重要内容,但在监测实践中还没有对此引起足够的重视,缺少有效的控制措施。文章在多年监测实践的基础上,总结归纳出一些控制措施和方法,实践证明,简单易行、科学有效。  相似文献
10.
污染源监测报告有效期问题的探讨   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
环境监测是环境管理的基础性工作,污染源监测报告(数据)的有效性是保证环境执法严肃、公正的重要条件,也是是守法企业展示良好社会形象的基本保证。依照国家的相关规定,并结合行业技术规范的要求,探讨污染源监测报告的有效期问题,以利于相关各方严肃、科学、合理地使用污染源监测数据。  相似文献
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