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1.
Rice straw can be used as a renewable fuel for heat and power generation. It is a viable mean of replacing fossil fuels and preventing pollution caused by open burning, especially in the areas where this residual biomass is generated. Nevertheless, the thermal conversion of rice straw can cause some operating problems such as slag formation, which negatively affects thermal conversion systems. So, the main objective of this research is studying the combustion behavior of rice straw samples collected from various regions by applying thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In addition, the thermal behavior of ashes from rice straw was also analyzed in order to detect their melting points, and ash sintering was detected at different temperatures within the range between 550 and 1000 °C. Since washing rice straw with water could reduce the content of undesirable inorganic compounds related to the ash fusibility, samples of washed rice straw were analyzed under combustion conditions to investigate its differences regarding the thermal behavior of rice straw. The results showed that rice straw washing led to a significant improvement in its thermal behavior, since it reduced the ash contents and sintering formation.  相似文献   
2.
The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) has provided the European Member States with a range of interacting governance challenges. This article studies three of these (the need for new administrative arrangements, public participation, and the enforced strict time frame). It questions how these interacting governance challenges were addressed in implementing the WFD in the Netherlands – a particularly interesting country since the European Commission assesses its implementation process in relatively positive terms, while an in-depth study reported on in this article tells a contrasting story. Based on this study, the article concludes that especially the interaction effects between the governance challenges may help us to better understand the outcome of the WFD-implementation process, and to provide more suitable advice as to how to improve the implementation process in future rounds.  相似文献   
3.
A competitive real-time (RT) immuno-polymerase chain reaction (iPCR) (RT-iPCR) assay was developed for the sensitive quantification of 17β-estradiol in water. Using a universal iPCR method and polyclonal antibodies, 17β-estradiol was accurately quantified at concentrations ranging from 1 pg mL?1 to 10 µg mL?1. The RT-iPCR assay's limit of detection was 0.7 pg mL?1. The RT-iPCR assay provided an 800-fold increase in sensitivity as well as an expanded working range compared with the corresponding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Assay cross-reactivity to estrone and estriol, two structurally related estrogens, was below 8%. Water samples spiked with 17β-estradiol were analyzed by RT-iPCR to determine the assay's potential as a rapid screen for the monitoring of manure-borne estrogens in the environment. The assay showed recoveries of 82, 102 and 103% for Milli-Q, tap, and irrigation water, respectively, without requiring sample extraction or concentration prior to analysis.  相似文献   
4.
Abstract

A tubular device has been developed making it possible to obtain layered samples of loosely aggregated, flocculent material from bogs or eutrophic lakes. The samples are up to 50 cm long and 15 cm in diameter. The sampler is free from protuberances and intact, layered samples can be taken. The tubular part of the sampler is about 85 em long, the walls of the lower 25‐cm portion harbouring a pneumatic closing mechanism which is controlled from above the water surface. An extendible handle for manipulating the sampler and for guiding it into place, is fastened to the upper end of the sampling tube. The performance and the operation of the sampler in the field are described.  相似文献   
5.
Abstract

This paper describes the development of apparatus suitable for direct supercritical fluid extraction of organics from water. Results are presented for the extraction of pentachlorophenol present in water at concentrations of the order of 0.1 ppm. The effect of changes in apparatus design and supercritical fluid flow rate on recovery are discussed.  相似文献   
6.
Biosensors for sensitive and specific detection of foodborne and waterborne pathogens are particularly valued for their portability, usability, relatively low cost, and real-time or near real-time response. Their application is widespread in several domains, including environmental monitoring. The main limitation of currently developed biosensors is a lack of sensitivity and specificity in complex matrices. Due to increased interest in biosensor development, we conducted a systematic review, com...  相似文献   
7.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs), as persistent toxic substances(PTS), have been widely monitored in coastal environment, including seawater and sediment. However, scientific monitoring methods, like ecological risk assessment and integrated biomarker response, still need massive researches to verify their availabilities. This study was performed in March, May, August and October of 2018 at eight sites, Yellow River estuary(S1), Guangli Port(S2), Xiaying(S3), Laizhou(S4), Inner Bay(S5), Ou...  相似文献   
8.
Hirsch, Robert M., 2011. A Perspective on Nonstationarity and Water Management. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 47(3):436‐446. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752‐1688.2011.00539.x Abstract: This essay offers some perspectives on climate‐related nonstationarity and water resources. Hydrologists must not lose sight of the many sources of nonstationarity, recognizing that many of them may be of much greater magnitude than those that may arise from climate change. It is paradoxical that statistical and deterministic approaches give us better insights about changes in mean conditions than about the tails of probability distributions, and yet the tails are very important to water management. Another paradox is that it is difficult to distinguish between long‐term hydrologic persistence and trend. Using very long hydrologic records is helpful in mitigating this problem, but does not guarantee success. Empirical approaches, using long‐term hydrologic records, should be an important part of the portfolio of research being applied to understand the hydrologic response to climate change. An example presented here shows very mixed results for trends in the size of the annual floods, with some strong clusters of positive trends and a strong cluster of negative trends. The potential for nonstationarity highlights the importance of the continuity of hydrologic records, the need for repeated analysis of the data as the time series grow, and the need for a well‐trained cadre of scientists and engineers, ready to interpret the data and use those analyses to help adjust the management of our water resources.  相似文献   
9.
不同政策对农户农药施用行为的影响   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
农户不规范的施药行为是引发农产品质量安全风险最直接的原因,为规范农户的施药行为,政府颁布并实施了多种政策,但大多收效甚微。农户不规范的施药行为主要表现在过量使用高毒农药、施用过程中不按规定操作以及农药残留物的处理问题上,如何针对农户不同的施药行为制定相应的政策,以达到有效规范农户施药行为的效果,这是本文研究的主要目的。文章基于全国986个农户的调查数据,运用有序logistic模型,分别回归了不同政策对农户过量施用农药的行为、不遵守施药间隔期的行为以及在施药过程中不阅读标签说明的行为的影响程度,结果表明:强令禁止高毒农药、对违反农产品安全生产进行处罚以及对收购的农产品进行检测等命令控制政策对农户是否过量施用农药的行为具有较强的规范效应,但对农户在施药过程中是否阅读标签说明的规范效果不佳;农药施用技术培训、农产品安全生产宣传教育等宣传培训的政策能有效规范农户在施药前阅读标签说明,但对农户是否过量施用农药的影响不大;以市场为基础的激励政策对农户过量施用农药、阅读标签说明以及遵守间隔期均有显著的规范效果。由此提出,政府在实施命令控制政策的同时,应加强农产品安全知识的宣传力度,定期为农户提供农药施用技术培训;由于以市场为基础的激励政策能有效弥补命令控制政策的监管漏洞,从而更有效的规范农户的施药行为,因此要建立激励惩罚机制,对使用生物农药、施用有机肥等具有正外部性的投入行为进行补贴,对使用高污染、高毒农药的行为进行征税,充分发挥市场为基础的监管政策的有效性。  相似文献   
10.
中国环境质量拐点:基于EKC的实证判断   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
促进环境质量改善是"十三五"时期实现绿色发展和最终全面建成小康社会的重要目标和任务。随着经济进入新常态和环境治理政策的强势推进,中国环境质量是否已经跨越峰值和进入持续改善的通道?本文基于环境库兹涅茨曲线这一理论工具,依据环境统计数据和国际经验事实判断中国是否到达环境库兹涅茨曲线的拐点和具备促使环境质量持续改善的经济特征。首先,应用中国各省份1998—2013年的面板数据,对人均收入水平与主要大气污染物排放的关系进行回归拟合发现,人均烟粉尘排放自1998年以来持续下降,人均二氧化硫、氮氧化物排放均在"十二五"中前期到达峰值。大部分东部省份已经越过环境库兹涅茨曲线的拐点,但环境质量改善仍然缓慢。多数中部省份处于峰值阶段,而西部省份大都处于经济增长与环境质量恶化的矛盾阶段。其次,基于污染物排放的驱动因素框架,将中国当前的经济特征与美、日、韩三国跨越环境库兹涅茨曲线拐点的经验进行比较,结论表明中国目前已基本具备了跨越环境库兹涅茨曲线拐点的经济驱动条件,但是相对滞后的城镇化进程将会导致污染物排放峰值的扁平化和波动性。以主要污染物排放在2014年的基础上削减30%—40%作为环境质量全面改善的转折点判断,中国环境质量将在2025年左右趋于全面改善。最后,为了促进环境质量全面改善,认为应该根据各地区经济发展与环境污染形势的不同,实施差别化环境治理政策。同时积极防范新一轮城镇化过程中的环境风险,进一步强化区域环境污染的协同治理。  相似文献   
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