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1.
Overwintering benthic algae not only directly impact drinking water safety, but also affect the algae recruitment in warm spring seasons. Thus, understanding the characteristics of overwintering benthic algae can provide scientific references for formulating preventative strategies of reasonable water resource. However, they have received less attention. In this study, the spatiotemporal variation of benthic algae and their harmful secondary metabolites were studied from autumn to summer in Qingcaosha Reservoir. Benthic algae (picophytobenthos accounting for 55.42%) had a high biomass during overwintering, and the groups of overwintering benthic algae included pico-Cyanobacteria, pico-Cryptomonas, pico-Chlorophyta, pico-Diatoms, Cyanobacteria, Chlorophyta, Cryptomonas and Diatoms, which were consistent with the planktonic algae species in warm seasons. In oligotrophic or mesotrophic water bodies, micronutrients of iron and manganese were key nutrient factors influencing the biomass of benthic algae. Furthermore, picophytobenthos were important potential contributors of harmful secondary metabolites. The content of microcystins, anatoxin-a, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in sediment were 15.75 µg/kg·FW, 48.16 µg/kg·FW, 3.91 ng/kg·FW, and 11.76 ng/kg·FW during winter, which had potential to be released into water bodies to impact water quality. These findings indicate that water quality monitoring programs need to consider sediment in winter as a potential source of toxins and preventative measures to prevent excessive proliferation of algae should be implemented in winter.  相似文献   
2.
在复杂多变的环境下,情景模拟法因其能考虑突发干扰的影响并能聚焦长期规划而表现出突出的优势。怀来是北京重要的水源地和环境保护屏障,2022年北京-张家口冬奥会的筹办将可能加快怀来的经济发展和城市扩展,进而对湿地的空间压力产生重要影响。因此,论文利用情景模拟法,结合城市扩展模型(land use scenario dynamics-urban,LUSD-urban)和湿地空间压力模型,模拟了趋势外推、城市规划和冬奥会3种情景下怀来未来城市扩展对湿地的空间压力。结果显示城市扩展导致怀来湿地空间压力增大,湿地平均压力从2000年的0.399增加到2013年的0.439,增长了10.03%。同时,湿地空间压力高于0.5的像元比例从6.73%增加到17.42%。3种情景下,2013—2030年怀来的湿地空间压力将增长0.002~0.005。冬奥会的举办将为怀来湿地带来更大的空间压力,冬奥会情景下湿地压力的热点区面积最大,为83.74 km2,是3种情景下共有热点区面积的1.44倍,新保安镇、土木镇和沙城镇的非城市用地面临的空间压力较大。因此,怀来县在未来制定城市规划时应充分考虑县内湿地生态系统,在保护湿地资源的基础上有效促进经济的发展。  相似文献   
3.
第24届冬季奥运会将于2022年2月4—20日在我国北京市和河北省张家口市联合举办,主要会场有北京奥体中心、北京延庆县和张家口市崇礼县.为了模拟分析冬奥会空气质量情况,利用冬奥会同期(2006—2016年2月)北京市和张家口市空气质量资料及韩国气象厅天气图资料(2013—2016年2月),分析该时段重污染发生的频次,统计不利于污染物扩散的天气形势出现概率及污染传输路径,并结合嵌套网格空气质量预报模式(NAPQMS),评估不同减排方案对ρ(PM2.5)的影响.结果表明:① 2006—2016年冬奥会同期,北京奥体中心和延庆县发生重污染天气的概率分别为17%和9%,污染发生的风险频率为北京奥体中心>延庆县>张家口市,并且北京奥体中心和延庆县在2月13—16日易出现持续的重污染天气过程;② 2013—2016年2月不利于污染扩散的天气形势出现概率较为频繁,尤其在850 hPa高度和地面,不利天气形势出现的概率分别为35%和41%;地面偏南风易将在北京西南方滞留较长时间的污染气团沿太行山输送至北京;③ 冬奥会期间,若于2月2—12日及17—20日将京津冀及周边城市污染物排放量在当前的基础上减排50%、2月13—16日减排75%,将可能不出现重污染日.严格控制北京及周边地区的大气污染物排放是保障冬奥会期间空气质量的必要措施.   相似文献   
4.
The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the most important regions for food production in China, with its agricultural system being significantly affected by the undergoing climate change and vulnerable with water stress. In this study, the Vegetation Interface Processes (VIP) model is used to evaluate crop yield, water consumption (ET), and water use efficiency (WUE) of a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–summer maize (Zea mays L.) double cropping system in the NCP from 1951 to 2006. Their responses to future climate scenarios of 21st century projected by the GCM (HadCM3) with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenario (IPCC SRES) A2 and B1 emissions are investigated. The results show a rapid enhancement of crop yield in the past 56 years, accompanying with slight increment of ET and noticeable improvement of WUE. There exist spatial patterns of crop yield stemmed mainly from soil quality and irrigation facilities. For climate change impacts, it is found that winter wheat yield will significantly increase with the maximum increment in A2 occurring in 2070s with a value of 19%, whereas the maximum in B1 being 13% in 2060s. Its ET is slightly intensified, which is less than 6%, under both A2 and B1 scenarios, giving rise to the improvement of WUE by 10% and 7% under A2 and B1 scenarios, respectively. Comparatively, summer maize yield will gently decline by 15% for A2 and 12% for B1 scenario, respectively. Its ET is obviously increasing since 2050s with over 10% relative change, leading to a lower WUE with more than 25% relative change under both scenarios in 2090s. Therefore, possible adaptation countermeasures should be developed to mitigate the negative effects of climate change for the sustainable development of agro-ecosystems in the NCP.  相似文献   
5.
Weather station measurements were used to force the SNOWPACK snow model and combined with reindeer herders’ experiences to study the local and regional variations in snow conditions in a Finnish reindeer herding area for the 1981–2010 period. Winter conditions varied significantly between the four selected herding districts and between open and forest environments within the districts. The highest snow depths and densities, the thicknesses of ground ice, and the lengths of snow cover period were generally found in the northernmost districts. The snow depths showed the strongest regional coherence, whereas the thicknesses of ground ice were weakly correlated among the districts. The local variation in snow depths was higher than the regional variation and limits for rare or exceptional events varied notably between different districts and environments. The results highlight that forests diversify snow and foraging conditions, e.g., ground ice rarely forms simultaneously in different environments. Sufficient and diverse forest pastures are important during the critical winter season if reindeer herding is pursued on natural grazing grounds also in the future.  相似文献   
6.
Bird use of conservation tillage-established (CT—seedbed preparation without soil inversion) crops was assessed at two adjacent sites in western Hungary, in comparison with conventionally established (mouldboard ploughed—P) fields. Bird abundance was assessed in a typical rotation of spring-sown maize and winter wheat in three consecutive winters. In the first winter, several species and the guild of seed-eating passerines were significantly more abundant on CT established plots, in both crop types. In the second winter, only starlings were more abundant on CT plots. In the third winter, only skylarks favoured CT over P plots. In combination with agri-environment scheme measures designed to provide resources for biodiversity, conservation tillage could play a role in softening the impact of agriculture on farmland birds in Hungary and elsewhere in Eastern Europe, in addition to its potential for reducing soil erosion and diffuse pollution.  相似文献   
7.
The wetlands play an important role in carbon storage, especially at high latitudes, at which they store nearly one-third of global soil carbons. However, few studies have investigated the emissions of CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O in the long-term, especially effects of freeze-thaw cycles on these gases emissions in freshwater marsh ecosystems. In this paper, we collected greenhouse gas emission data from a freshwater marsh area in China for 4 years, evaluated their release variables and speculated on their potential atmospheric impact. For this paper, we report on the CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O emission rates recorded from June 2002 to November 2005 in the Sanjiang Plain of northeast China. We measured their interannual variations and fluctuations, as well as factors affecting their emissions, and estimated their regulation and freeze-thaw cycle impacts. Our results revealed obvious CO(2) and CH(4) emission fluctuations during the winter months, and during the freeze-thaw cycle, and a strong interannual variation during the growing season. Overall, we documented a close relationship between the CO(2) and CH(4) emissions, implicating some regulatory commonality. We determined that the marsh was a N(2)O sink during the winter, but a significant source of N(2)O during the freeze-thaw cycle as the temperature increased, especially in early summer. During the thaw-freeze period, the N(2)O levels were positively correlated with the water depth. Additionally, water depth greatly governed the interannual variation of the N(2)O emissions from the marshes during the thaw-freeze period.  相似文献   
8.
The particulate matter (PM) pollution has been significantly improved by carrying out various valid emission control strategies since 2013 in China. Meanwhile the variation trend of nitrous acid (HONO) is worthy to investigate due to its vital role in the atmospheric oxidation process. In this study, field observation in the winter is conducted to investigate the concentration of HONO in an urban area of Beijing. In the winter of 2019, the mean HONO concentration is 1.38 ppbV during the whole winter. Photo-enhanced NO2 heterogeneous reactions on the ground and aerosol surfaces were found as the possible daytime sources of HONO. Compared to O3, photolysis of HONO dominates the primary OH sources during the winter time. To understand the HONO pollution patterns by years variation, multi-year data is summarized and finds that primary pollutants including CO and NO decreased, but secondary pollutants i.e., HONO (mostly generated via secondary process) increased. Our study highlights the requirement to mitigate secondary pollution by control HONO concentration.  相似文献   
9.
The tillage-based winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-summer fallow (WW-SF) cropping system has dominated dryland farming in the Pacific Northwest USA for 125 years. We conducted a large-scale multidisciplinary 8-year study of annual (i.e., no summer fallow) no-till cropping systems as an alternative to WW-SF. Soft white and hard white classes of winter and spring wheat, spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), yellow mustard (Brassica hirta Moench), and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were grown in various rotation combinations. Annual precipitation was less than the long-term average of 301 mm in 7 out of 8 years. Rhizoctonia bare patch disease caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 appeared in year 3 and continued through year 8 in all no-till plots. All crops were susceptible to rhizoctonia, but bare patch area in wheat was reduced, and grain yield increased, when wheat was grown in rotation with barley every other year. Remnant downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) weed seeds remained dormant for 6 years and longer to heavily infest recrop winter wheat. There were few quantifiable changes in soil quality due to crop rotation, but soil organic carbon (SOC) increased in the surface 0–5 cm depth with no-till during the 8 years to approach that found in undisturbed native soil. Annual no-till crop rotations experienced lower average profitability and greater income variability compared to WW-SF. Yellow mustard and safflower were not economically viable. Continuous annual cropping using no-till provides excellent protection against wind erosion and shows potential to increase soil quality, but the practice involves high economic risk compared to WW-SF. This paper provides the first comprehensive multidisciplinary report of long-term alternative annual no-till cropping systems research in the low-precipitation region of the Pacific Northwest.  相似文献   
10.
Climate change adaptation in the ski industry   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
Regardless of the success of climate change mitigation efforts, the international community has concluded that societies around the world will need to adapt to some magnitude of climate change in the 21st century. While some economic sectors (e.g., agriculture, water resources and construction) have been actively engaged in climate change adaptation research for years, adaptation has received scant consideration within the tourism-recreation industry. This is particularly the case for adaptation by tourism operators (supply-side). One exception where progress on supply-side climate adaptation has been made is the ski industry. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on the implications of climate change for the international ski industry and how adaptation by ski area operators has been treated within these studies. This is followed by an inventory of climate adaptation practices currently used by ski industry stakeholders, including the historical development of certain key adaptations and constraints to wider use. The characteristics of ski areas with higher adaptive capacity are identified. Considering the highly competitive nature of the ski industry and the generally low climate change risk appraisal within the industry, climate change adaptation is anticipated to remain individualistic and reactive for some time. With only a few exceptions, the existing climate change literature on winter tourism has not considered the wide range of adaptation options identified in this paper and has likely overestimated potential damages. An important task for future studies is to develop methodologies to incorporate adaptation so that a more accurate understanding of the vulnerability of the international ski industry can be ascertained.  相似文献   
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