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1.
Adsorption and degradation of sulfosulfuron in soils   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
Adsorption of sulfosulfuron was studied in two soils (topsoil from Alfisol and Inceptisol). The adsorption of sulfosulfuron was greater in topsoil collected from Alfisol than in Inceptisol. The soil sorption coefficient K and the soil organic carbon sorption coefficient K oc are the basic parameters used for describing the environmental fate of the herbicides. In topsoil the calculated K values from Alfisol was 4.43 and in topsoil from Inceptisol was 2.00. K c values were 6.06 in topsoil from Alfisol and 3.33 in topsoil from Inceptisol. The K oc values were 886.36 in topsoil from Alfisol and 770.26 in topsoil from Inceptisol. Field experimental plots with no previous history of sulfosulfuron were selected and studied the degradation of sulfosulfuron in the topsoil collected from Alfisol and Inceptisol. The half-life of sulfosulfuron in topsoil from Alfisol: T 1− 3.97 days and T 2− 4.54 days; topsoil from Inceptisol: T 1 − 4.68 days and T 2 − 5.52 days. The degradation of sulfosulfuron followed first-order kinetics. The persistence of sulfosulfuron was found relatively longer in the Inceptisol than in Alfisol. The combination of degradation data (t 1/2 – soil) and organic carbon based sorption (K oc) data of herbicides have been used to assess the pesticide environmental impact in soils through Gustafson Ubiquity Score (GUS). The GUS values were found to be 0.69 in topsoil from Alfisol and 0.83 in Inceptisol.  相似文献
2.
The adsorption behaviour of Diphenylamine (DPAM), napthylamine ( NAM), napthylamine ( NAM)and aniline on pyrolusite and activated carbon has been studied.Pyrolusite shows remarkable sorption capacity for DPAM and NAM as compared to aniline; (the adsorption followed theorder:Activated Carbon: DPAM = NAM > AnilinePyrolusite: DPAM: NAM > NAM> Aniline)The maximum adsorption of NAM occurred in theconcentration range 4–20 g mL-1 on pyrolusite (95%)and 4–50 g mL-1 on activated carbon (100%). Theeffect of various doses of activated carbon on the adsorption of NAM confirm Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms where asFreundlich isotherm is obeyed by pyrolusite. The adsorption of NAM on both the absorbents is not affected in presence ofDPAM over a wide range of their initial concentrations (20–60g mL-1). The desorption studies of NAM onpyrolusite was carried out by batch as well as column processes.Excellent results were obtained when a mixture of n-hexane andisopropanol (91:1) was used as eluent.  相似文献
3.
气相色谱法测定工业废气中的异丙醇   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
用活性炭吸附管采集吸附工业废气中的异丙醇,经二硫化碳解析后由自动进样器送入气相色谱仪中分离并由FID检测器检测。2 mL二硫化碳解吸溶剂中异丙醇的绝对量为1.57~6.28 mg时,测定结果的相对标准偏差为2.4%~7.6%(n=5);当样品采集量为10 L时,方法检出限为0.3 mg/m3。所用活性炭采样管对异丙醇的吸附效果良好,100 mg活性炭对异丙醇的穿透容量大于15 mg;二硫化碳溶剂对吸附在活性炭中的异丙醇解吸效果较好,异丙醇加标量为3.92~15.70 mg时,解吸效率为93.9%~100.5%。  相似文献
4.
The adsorption of four volatile organic compounds (1,4-dichloro-benzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2,2-trichloroethane and 1,1,2,2,-tetrachloroethane) on three soil types from a Superfund site (Petroprocessors Inc) in Baton Rouge, LA was studied with the purpose of obtaining an overall correlation for inclusion in a groundwater transport model being developed for site remediation. The soil-water partition constant, Kd was determined using a standard ASTM procedure (E–1195–87). Using the data for different soil types (fraction organic carbon between 0.11% and 1.13%) and different mineral surface areas (7 to 45 m2/g), the organic carbon contribution (Koc) and the mineral matter contribution (Kmin) to the partition constant were determined. The soils obtained were either from the Pleistocene period or recent shallow deposits at the site. Both log Koc and log Kmin were linearly correlated to log Kow, the octanol-water partition constant. This data provided the basis for obtaining a general correlation for Kd on different soil types at the site. The predicted values were in agreement with that for a composite soil from the same site. The desorption of compounds from the high clay soil after the 24 hour adsorption period was observed to show a biphasic behavior, namely, an easily desorbed fraction and a desorption resistant fraction. The easily desorbed fraction was found to be satisfactorily predicted using the conventional Kd as obtained from the adsorption experiment. The slowly desorbing fraction had a time constant of several weeks. The concentration in the desorption resistant compartment was found to be dependant on the initial amount of contaminant available for adsorption. The aqueous phase concentration in equilibrium with the desorption resistant fraction was found to be 8 g/L for dichlorobenzene and 12 g/L for dichloroethane.  相似文献
5.
The adsorption of four volatile organic compounds (1,4-dichloro-benzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2,2-trichloroethane and 1,1,2,2,-tetrachloroethane) on three soil types from a Superfund site (Petroprocessors Inc) in Baton Rouge, LA was studied with the purpose of obtaining an overall correlation for inclusion in a groundwater transport model being developed for site remediation. The soil-water partition constant, Kd was determined using a standard ASTM procedure (E–1195–87). Using the data for different soil types (fraction organic carbon between 0.11% and 1.13%) and different mineral surface areas (7 to 45 m2/g), the organic carbon contribution (Koc) and the mineral matter contribution (Kmin) to the partition constant were determined. The soils obtained were either from the Pleistocene period or recent shallow deposits at the site. Both log Koc and log Kmin were linearly correlated to log Kow, the octanol-water partition constant. This data provided the basis for obtaining a general correlation for Kd on different soil types at the site. The predicted values were in agreement with that for a composite soil from the same site. The desorption of compounds from the high clay soil after the 24 hour adsorption period was observed to show a biphasic behavior, namely, an easily desorbed fraction and a desorption resistant fraction. The easily desorbed fraction was found to be satisfactorily predicted using the conventional Kd as obtained from the adsorption experiment. The slowly desorbing fraction had a time constant of several weeks. The concentration in the desorption resistant compartment was found to be dependant on the initial amount of contaminant available for adsorption. The aqueous phase concentration in equilibrium with the desorption resistant fraction was found to be 8 g/L for dichlorobenzene and 12 g/L for dichloroethane.  相似文献
6.
Hg(II) Retention capacities of nine bryophyte species, collected from Jinfo Mountains (JFM) in Chongqing, China, had been investigated with special reference to the effect of morphology and elevation of moss growth. Results indicated that adsorption capacities of bryophytes for Hg(II) became stronger with the increase of multi-branches and leafy-shoots, as well as the elevation of moss growth, which was observed both in adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetics experiments. Contrarily, the desorption kinetics showed a decrease tendency with the increase of multi-branches and leafy-shoots and the elevation of moss growth. The results demonstrated that bryophytes with higher multi-branches and leafy-shoots and higher growth elevation had a stronger adsorption capacity and a weaker desorption tendency, and therefore had a stronger retention capacity to Hg(II). The results disclosed the different relative sensitivity and retention capacity of mosses to pollution resulting from heavy metals, due to the differences in growth elevation and morphology. These should be considered when bryophytes were chosen as a tool for biomonitoring materials to environmental pollution, especially caused by Hg(II).  相似文献
7.
选择上海地区广泛分布的水稻土,通过静态吸附平衡试验,比较土壤去除非晶质氧化铁和去除游离氧化铁后对Pb2+的吸附-解吸行为,采用数学模型拟合,探讨3种土壤的最佳拟合方程、最大吸附的理论值和亲和能力,进而研究非晶质氧化铁和游离氧化铁对Pb2+吸附-解吸的影响。结果表明,去除氧化铁后吸附能力和亲和能力均减弱,原土的最大吸附量为29.21 g/kg,非晶质氧化铁的贡献值为3.52 g/kg,游离氧化铁的贡献值为 8.32 g/kg。  相似文献
8.
针对典型制药产品青霉素、阿莫西林、维生素C、对乙酰氨基酚生产过程的挥发性有机物(VOCs)排放特点,建立了吸附-解吸-气相色谱法同时检测制药企业废气中丙酮、乙酸乙酯、异丙醇、苯、甲苯、乙酸丁酯和正丁醇等7种特征VOCs的分析方法。采用活性炭采样管采样-二硫化碳解吸-毛细管色谱柱分离,在解吸时间30 min、柱温35 ℃保持6 min、30 ℃/min速率升温到200 ℃保持2 min的色谱分析条件下,各挥发性有机物可以实现良好的分离;7种物质标准曲线相关系数为0.999 8~0.999 9,相对标准偏差为1.1%~3.2%,检出限为0.004 mg/m3~0.014 mg/m3,7种物质的解吸效率为83.1%~105.1%。结果表明,该方法适用于典型制药企业固定污染源排放废气中特征VOCs的测定。  相似文献
9.
采用室内实验方法,研究了不同铬浓度及不同pH对棕壤吸附-解吸铬的影响,草酸、EDTA和柠檬酸3种有机酸在不同浓度、不同pH条件下对棕壤吸附-解吸铬的影响。结果表明,棕壤对Cr6+的吸附率随其浓度的增大逐渐增大,并在酸性条件下易于吸附Cr6+,在碱性条件下易于解吸Cr6+,低浓度有机酸有利于棕壤对Cr6+的解吸。EDTA解吸率最大,草酸次之,柠檬酸最小。  相似文献
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