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1.
The sensitivity of eleven metrics using macroinvertebrate assemblages were evaluated in an environmental gradient in a tropical river in south-east Brazil. Eight sites were sampled in an altitudinal range of 160–650 m.a.s.l. during 1999 (April and August) and 2000 (February). Four substrates were sampled at each site: riffle litter, pool litter, stony substrates and sediment. Correspondence Analysis indicated that assemblages were primarily more influenced by physical changes (like deforestation and erosion processes) than the water chemistry. The sensitivity of each metric was evaluated through the application of box-and-whisker plot method by its power to assess impairment (metrics should be able to discriminate reference sites from impaired sites) and natural variability (metrics should not discriminate two reference sites). Metrics that failed in at least one of the above premises were not considered as sensitive. In this study, the most sensitive metrics were Shannon index, BMWP-ASPT, %_EPT, and relative abundance of EPT to Chironomidae.  相似文献
2.
The purpose of this article is to report on the testing of responses of multimetric macroinvertebrate and habitat indices to common disturbances to streams: stream habitat alteration, excessive sediment, and elevated metals concentrations. Seven macroinvertebrate community metrics were combined into a macroinvertebrate biotic index (MBI), and 11 channel morphology, riparian, and substrate features were combined into a habitat index. Indices were evaluated by comparing the habitat results to fish population surveys and comparing the macroinvertebrate results to habitat ratings, percent fine sediments measured by Wolman pebble counts, and copper concentrations. Macroinvertebrate scores decreased with increasing percentages of fine sediments measured either across the bankfull or instream channel widths. Macroinvertebrate scores decreased with increasing copper. One metric, richness of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa, was more responsive to both copper and sediment than was the multimetric MBI. Habitat scores corresponded well with the age class structure of salmonids, but not with that of benthic sculpins. Both salmonid and sculpin age classes declined with increasing percentages of fine sediments. The decline was graded with the sculpin age classes, whether fine sediments were measured across the instream or bankfull channel, whereas salmonids consistently responded only to the instream fine sediments.  相似文献
3.
In Maryland, U.S., an interim framework has recentlybeen developed for using biologically based thresholds, or `biocriteria', to assess the health of nontidal streams statewide at watershed scales. The evaluation of impairment is based on indices of biological integrity from the Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS). We applied logistic regression to quantify how the biotic integrity of streams at a local scale is affected by cumulative effects resulting from catchment land uses, point sources, and nearby transmission line rights-of-way. Indicators for land use were developed from the remote sensing National Land Cover Data and applied at different scales. We determined that the risk of local impairment in nontidal streams rapidly increases with increased urban land use in the catchment area. The average likelihood of failing biocriteria doubled with every 10% points increment in urban land, thus an increase in urban land use from 0 to 20% quadruples the risk of impairment. For the basins evaluated in this study, catchments with more than 40–50% urban land use had greater than 80% probability of failing biocriteria, on average. Inclusion of rights-of-way and point sources in the model did not significantly improve the fit for this data set, most likely because of their low numbers. The overall results indicate that our predictive modeling approach can help pinpoint stream ecosystems experiencing or vulnerable to degradation.  相似文献
4.
连云港主要河流大型底栖无脊椎动物水质生物评价   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
于2008年5月采用D形网半定量采样法调查了连云港市5条河流7个点位的大型底栖无脊椎动物群落多样性,共获得67个大型底栖无脊椎动物分类单元;其中,昆虫纲双翅目18属、蜻蜓目11属;软体动物24种;环节动物4科4属5种。应用典范对应分析(CCA)排序结果将7个样点分成高TN低DO、高电导率和低TN以及高DO和低电导率3组。Shannon—Wiener多样性指数、生物指数和COD水质评价结果表明,多样性指数与生物指数和COD评价结果有较大差异,生物指数和COD评价结果较相似。综合评价结果为青口河的水质属于清洁;蔷薇河、淮沐新河、鲁兰河和新沭河属于轻污至中污。生物指数与TN极显著正相关(r=0.913,P=0.004),多样性指数与TN无相关性(r=0.257,P=0,578)。  相似文献
5.
江苏地表水体大型底栖无脊椎动物生物多样性状况研究   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
大型底栖无脊椎动物群落结构与水体水质和水生态系统健康状况关系密切,其受外界干扰后群落结构的变化趋势可以反映水体受污染的性质和程度。2008年,对江苏省主要饮用水源地,长江、京杭大运河等主要河流及太湖等重点湖泊开展底栖动物调查与评价研究,共设置调查点位154个。江苏主要饮用水源地底栖动物的物种数量为78种,主要河流发现底栖动物96种,主要湖泊底栖动物发现65种。从物种多样性指数评价结果看,主要湖泊的底栖生物多样性状况优于地表水源地和主要河流,丰富和较丰富所占比例合计达58%;主要河流的评价结果最差,丰富和较丰富所占比例合计仅达30.7%,存在11.3%物种多样性极贫乏的点位,且大部分水体底栖动物组成以耐污种为主,优势种为极耐污的霍甫水丝蚓,水质状况劣于饮用水源地和主要湖泊。  相似文献
6.
Of the many groups of organisms proposed for use in biomonitoring, assemblages of fish, algae, and benthic macroinvertebrates are the most commonly selected. Purported advantages and disadvantages of using these groups, along with those of zooplankton, were assembled from 65 different publications and websites. From these, 13 categories of advantages and nine of disadvantages were created. The diversity of the assemblage and its importance to the ecosystem were reported as advantages in >20% of citations for each group; these similarities suggest that some redundancy exists among the different groups in terms of these features. Likewise, sampling difficulties and lack of analytic metrics were disadvantages listed in >20% of citations for each group. Few reported advantages (e.g. recreational value of fish) or disadvantages (e.g. short generation time of algae) were unique for a particular assemblage. The validity of reported advantages and disadvantages were sometimes region specific, other times incorrect. The choice of which assemblage is most appropriate for a biomonitoring program ultimately depends on the characteristics of the area to be studied and the program objectives.  相似文献
7.
The Mid-Atlantic Highlands Assessment (MAHA) included the sampling of macroinvertebrates from 424 wadeable stream sites to determine status and trends, biological conditions, and water quality in first through third order streams in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands Region (MAHR) of the United States in 1993–1995. We identified reference and impaired sites using water chemistry and habitat criteria and evaluated a set of candidate macroinvertebrate metrics using a stepwise process. This process examined several metric characteristics, including ability of metrics to discriminate reference and impaired sites, relative scope of impairment, correlations with chemical and habitat indicators of stream disturbance, redundancy with other metrics, and within-year variability. Metrics that performed well were compared with metrics currently being used by three states in the region: Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. Some of the metrics used by these states did not perform well when evaluated using regional data, while other metrics used by all three states in some form, specifically number of taxa, number of EPT taxa, and Hilsenhoff Biotic Index, performed well overall. Reasons for discrepancies between state and regional evaluations of metrics are explored. We also provide a set of metrics that, when used in combination, may provide a useful assessment of stream conditions in the MAHR.  相似文献
8.
This study was undertaken to determine the importance of riparian buffers to stream ecology in agricultural areas. The original Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) data set was partitioned to represent agricultural sites in Maryland's Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions. ANOVA, multiple linear regression (MLR), and CART regression tree models were developed using riparian and site catchment landscape characteristics. MBSS data were both stratified by physiographic region and analyzed as a combined data set. All models indicated that land management at the site was not the controlling factor for fish IBIs (FIBI) at that site and, hence, using FIBI to evaluate site-scale factors would not be a prudent procedure. Measures of instream habitat and location in the stream network were the dominant explanatory factors for FIBI models. Both CART and MLR models indicated that forest buffers were influential on benthic IBIs (BIBI). Explanatory variables reflected instream conditions, adjacent landscape influence, and chemistry in the Coastal Plains sites, all of which are relatively site specific. However, for Piedmont sites, hydrologic factors were important, in addition to adjacent landscape influence, and chemistry. Both Coastal Plain and Piedmont CART models identified several hydrologic factors, emphasizing the dominant control of hydrology on the physical habitat index (PHI). Riparian buffers were a secondary influence on PHI in the Coastal Plain, but not in the Piedmont. Between 40% and 70% of the variation in FIBI, BIBI, and PHI was explained by the “easily obtainable” variables available from the MBSS data set. While these are empirical results specific to Maryland, the general findings are of use to other locations where the establishment of forest buffers is considered as an aquatic ecosystem restoration measure.  相似文献
9.
Direct measurement of the accumulation of non-radioactive traceelements in aquatic biota near uranium mining or processing sites has been relatively rare, with greater focus on the radiological activity in the adjacent soils and groundwater. To evaluate the potential ecological concern associated with trace elements at a former uranium mill site in southeasternUtah, benthic macroinvertebrates were collected and analyzed for 17 trace elements from multiple locations within a small on-site stream, Montezuma Creek, and a nearby reference stream. Key questions of this study relate to the spatial and temporalextent of contamination in aquatic biota, the potential ecological risks associated with that contamination, and the usefulness of benthic macroinvertebrates as a monitoring tool at this site. Composite samples of similar macroinvertebrate taxa and functional feeding groups were collected from each site over atwo year period that was representative of normal and dry-yearconditions. In both years, mean concentrations of arsenic,molybdenum, selenium, and vanadium were significantly higher (afactor of 2–4 times; P < 0.05) in macroinvertebrates collectedfrom one or both of the two Montezuma Creek sites immediatelydownstream of the mill tailing site in comparison toconcentrations from reference locations. Mean uraniumconcentrations in invertebrates immediately downstream of themill site were more than 10 times higher than at reference sites.The site-to-site pattern of contamination in Montezuma Creekinvertebrates was similar in 1995 and 1996, with mill-relatedtrace elements showing a downstream decreasing trend. However,nine of seventeen contaminant concentrations were higher in thesecond year of the study, possibly due to a higher influx of deepgroundwater during the drier second year of the study. Apreliminary assessment of ecological risks, based on the benthicmacroinvertebrate bioaccumulation data, suggests that aquatic andterrestrial population risks are low. Benthic macroinvertebratesappeared to be sensitive integrators of trace element inputs tothe aquatic environment from a former uranium mill tailing site,and provided useful spatial and temporal patterns ofcontamination not easily obtained using conventional surfacewater or groundwater measures.  相似文献
10.
Characterizing Small Subbasins: A Case Study from Coastal Oregon   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
A fine-grained statisticaly robust probability sample of stream segments is used to compare two small (20,000 hectare) subbasins of the Tillamook watershed, north coastal Oregon. The two subbasins are matched with respect to several variables [size coastal climates], but vary in terms of geology and consequently land use. A total of 67 wadeable + non-wadeable sizes were identified for sampling in the two subbasins (combined) over two field seasons from a sampling universe consisting of the River Reach File 3 (blue lines on 1:100,000 maps). Target variables include an extensive array of physical habitat endpoints, selected water chemistry endpoints, species composition, and relative abundance of both benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. Field protocols generally followed those of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP).Eleven fish species were encountered, a typically low number for coastal Oregon streams. Exploratory analysis using nonmetric multidimensional scaling revealed that 92.4% of the variation in the fish assemblages could be explained with two ordination axes. Environmental factors related to stream size and substate were the most correlated to these axes. Further, stream segments for the two subbasins tended to map in different areas of species space. Therefore, we also give unweighted probability distributions for several of the factors that heavily on these two axes by subbasins, as well as probability distributions for chemical endpoints. Results from the subset of sites sampled during the first year (21 wadeable sites) reveal: 1) differences between samples from the two subbasins relates to dream size and substrate composition that are consistent with known differences in geology and land use, 2) unexpectedly minor differences between samples from the two subbasins for stream temperature, canopy cover, and dissolved oxygen, 3) differences between samples from the two subbasins for total P, and total N, possibly related to land use, and 4) unexpected differences in samples from the two subbasins for conductivity, probably related to geological factors. Sample size for each subbasin is low and therefore our samples cannot be taken to necessarily characterize either subbasin. However, our findings are consistent with a comprehensive assessment that had been previously produced for one of the two subbasins.All field work was completed in 8 weeks 3-person field crew. We conclude that rapid assessment protocols, based on probability samples at this level of resolution, can be a cost-effective approach to watershed analysis. This approach should be seen as a complement to, rather than a replacement for, systematic surveys that produced finer scale, reach specific information on factors such as channel complexity and cover relevant to in-stream restoration planning.  相似文献
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