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1.
水体重金属污染生物监测的研究进展   总被引:13,自引:3,他引:10       下载免费PDF全文
综述了重金属的毒性效应和水体重金属污染的现状,介绍了利用水生藻类、浮游动物群落和底栖动物监测水体重金属污染的研究进展及发展趋势。  相似文献
2.
我国流域水生态完整性评价方法构建   总被引:9,自引:8,他引:1  
流域水生态完整性评价是指通过对水生态系统中不同水生态指标(生物和非生物)的监测以及由数学方法综合形成的综合评价指数,来反映水生态系统完整性状况。近年来,世界各国水环境管理政策发生了变化,开始强调生态保护,重视水体的生态质量。中国现行的常规理化监测指标(如COD、氨氮、BOD5)很难满足水环境管理的需求,难以全面准确地反映水环境质量变化的趋势。因此,在借鉴欧美发达国家流域水生态完整性评价方法的基础上,结合中国目前监测现状以及流域水环境管理需求,构建了包括物理生境指标、理化指标、水生生物指标在内的流域水生态完整性监测与评价方法,以期为中国流域水质目标管理技术体系的业务化运行提供可资借鉴的技术支撑,实现从单一的化学指标监测转向综合的水生态系统监测,实现流域水生态完整性的监测与评价。  相似文献
3.
大口子水库的生物学调查与评价   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5       下载免费PDF全文
为了解大口子水库水质的污染状况及污染趋势,淮安市环境监测中心站于“九五”期间对大口子水库进行了生物分析指标的监测和生物学评价。结果表明,“九五”期间,大口子水库的水质呈典型富营养化状态,且营养化程度有加重趋势;底栖动物群落的调查结果显示,化学毒性污染稍有好转,有机物污染占主导地位。提出,该水域不宜继续作为养殖基地进行水产养殖,对其污染的治理已刻不容缓。  相似文献
4.
The purpose of this article is to report on the testing of responses of multimetric macroinvertebrate and habitat indices to common disturbances to streams: stream habitat alteration, excessive sediment, and elevated metals concentrations. Seven macroinvertebrate community metrics were combined into a macroinvertebrate biotic index (MBI), and 11 channel morphology, riparian, and substrate features were combined into a habitat index. Indices were evaluated by comparing the habitat results to fish population surveys and comparing the macroinvertebrate results to habitat ratings, percent fine sediments measured by Wolman pebble counts, and copper concentrations. Macroinvertebrate scores decreased with increasing percentages of fine sediments measured either across the bankfull or instream channel widths. Macroinvertebrate scores decreased with increasing copper. One metric, richness of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa, was more responsive to both copper and sediment than was the multimetric MBI. Habitat scores corresponded well with the age class structure of salmonids, but not with that of benthic sculpins. Both salmonid and sculpin age classes declined with increasing percentages of fine sediments. The decline was graded with the sculpin age classes, whether fine sediments were measured across the instream or bankfull channel, whereas salmonids consistently responded only to the instream fine sediments.  相似文献
5.
用水氵蚤监测水质   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
介绍了利用水Sao监测水质的优势及常用方法,探讨了水Sao的实验室培养技术,并了水Sao对污染物的形态、生殖和行为反应,提出利用水Sao监视污水安全排放和生产用水水质的设想。在分析水Sao毒性试验误差来源的基础上,建议对试验生物材料和测试环境进行限定,最终形成操作性强的标准方法。  相似文献
6.
Of the many groups of organisms proposed for use in biomonitoring, assemblages of fish, algae, and benthic macroinvertebrates are the most commonly selected. Purported advantages and disadvantages of using these groups, along with those of zooplankton, were assembled from 65 different publications and websites. From these, 13 categories of advantages and nine of disadvantages were created. The diversity of the assemblage and its importance to the ecosystem were reported as advantages in >20% of citations for each group; these similarities suggest that some redundancy exists among the different groups in terms of these features. Likewise, sampling difficulties and lack of analytic metrics were disadvantages listed in >20% of citations for each group. Few reported advantages (e.g. recreational value of fish) or disadvantages (e.g. short generation time of algae) were unique for a particular assemblage. The validity of reported advantages and disadvantages were sometimes region specific, other times incorrect. The choice of which assemblage is most appropriate for a biomonitoring program ultimately depends on the characteristics of the area to be studied and the program objectives.  相似文献
7.
The Mid-Atlantic Highlands Assessment (MAHA) included the sampling of macroinvertebrates from 424 wadeable stream sites to determine status and trends, biological conditions, and water quality in first through third order streams in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands Region (MAHR) of the United States in 1993–1995. We identified reference and impaired sites using water chemistry and habitat criteria and evaluated a set of candidate macroinvertebrate metrics using a stepwise process. This process examined several metric characteristics, including ability of metrics to discriminate reference and impaired sites, relative scope of impairment, correlations with chemical and habitat indicators of stream disturbance, redundancy with other metrics, and within-year variability. Metrics that performed well were compared with metrics currently being used by three states in the region: Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. Some of the metrics used by these states did not perform well when evaluated using regional data, while other metrics used by all three states in some form, specifically number of taxa, number of EPT taxa, and Hilsenhoff Biotic Index, performed well overall. Reasons for discrepancies between state and regional evaluations of metrics are explored. We also provide a set of metrics that, when used in combination, may provide a useful assessment of stream conditions in the MAHR.  相似文献
8.
论生物监测室的建设与管理——微生物分析室部分   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
本文依据微生物学实验的基本规范,针对市、县环境监测站的特点,结合笔者十多年的工作体会,对生物监测室的微生物分析室的建设与管理,进行了较系统全面的论述,并提出了几个值得探讨的问题。  相似文献
9.
大型蚤在线生物监测系统研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
近年来,世界范围内突发性废水泄漏事件频发,在引起人们对水质问题恐慌的同时,也促进了饮用水在线监测与早期污染预警系统的发展。生物监测可以对污染环境下多污染物的联合毒性进行有效评估,具有传统化学监测所不具备的优点,已成为判定水质是否对水生生物存在影响、是否符合人类安全饮用的有效依据和手段。介绍了大型蚤在线生物监测系统的多通道流通生物测试室和生物传感器系统,并对世界范围内的研究与应用情况做了研究综述。目前,采用大型蚤作为指示生物的在线监测系统已在饮用水水质监测方面成功实现,但其在工业废水接管过程中毒性评估和早期预警的研究和应用上尚有不足,有待更加深入地探讨与研究。  相似文献
10.
紫露草微核监测不同于理化监测,它反映的是环境污染中诱度因子对生物细胞遗传物质DNA的作用强度。微核率的大小反映出污染物对生物体影响程度的大小,本文初探该法用于污水监测。  相似文献
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