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典型水源地地下水污染风险评价   总被引:4,自引:2,他引:2  
地下水污染是由含水层本身的脆弱性与人类活动产生的污染负荷造成的。污染物的荷载可以控制或改变,但是含水层的敏感性是本质的、天然的特性。污染风险不仅取决于相对稳定、不宜改变的含水层天然特征,还取决于主观的污染活动。因此,从地下水天然防污性能、地下水污染源荷载以及地下水社会效益3个方面评价了典型水源地地下水受污染的风险。  相似文献
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Direct measurement of the accumulation of non-radioactive traceelements in aquatic biota near uranium mining or processing sites has been relatively rare, with greater focus on the radiological activity in the adjacent soils and groundwater. To evaluate the potential ecological concern associated with trace elements at a former uranium mill site in southeasternUtah, benthic macroinvertebrates were collected and analyzed for 17 trace elements from multiple locations within a small on-site stream, Montezuma Creek, and a nearby reference stream. Key questions of this study relate to the spatial and temporalextent of contamination in aquatic biota, the potential ecological risks associated with that contamination, and the usefulness of benthic macroinvertebrates as a monitoring tool at this site. Composite samples of similar macroinvertebrate taxa and functional feeding groups were collected from each site over atwo year period that was representative of normal and dry-yearconditions. In both years, mean concentrations of arsenic,molybdenum, selenium, and vanadium were significantly higher (afactor of 2–4 times; P < 0.05) in macroinvertebrates collectedfrom one or both of the two Montezuma Creek sites immediatelydownstream of the mill tailing site in comparison toconcentrations from reference locations. Mean uraniumconcentrations in invertebrates immediately downstream of themill site were more than 10 times higher than at reference sites.The site-to-site pattern of contamination in Montezuma Creekinvertebrates was similar in 1995 and 1996, with mill-relatedtrace elements showing a downstream decreasing trend. However,nine of seventeen contaminant concentrations were higher in thesecond year of the study, possibly due to a higher influx of deepgroundwater during the drier second year of the study. Apreliminary assessment of ecological risks, based on the benthicmacroinvertebrate bioaccumulation data, suggests that aquatic andterrestrial population risks are low. Benthic macroinvertebratesappeared to be sensitive integrators of trace element inputs tothe aquatic environment from a former uranium mill tailing site,and provided useful spatial and temporal patterns ofcontamination not easily obtained using conventional surfacewater or groundwater measures.  相似文献
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