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1.
论开发项目环境影响经济损益分析的方法   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
介绍了环境影响经济损益分析通用的 9项指标及 5种货币化方法 ,并以某煤矿为例 ,作了示范分析。  相似文献
2.
Assessment of Climate Change Effects on Canada's National Park System   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
To estimate the magnitude of climate change anticipated forCanada's 38 National Parks (NPs) and Park Reserves, seasonaltemperature and precipitation scenarios were constructed for 2050and 2090 using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling andAnalysis (CCCma) coupled model (CGCM1). For each park, we assessed impacts on physical systems, species, ecosystems andpeople. Important, widespread changes relate to marine andfreshwater hydrology, glacial balance, waning permafrost, increased natural disturbance, shorter ice season, northern andupward altitudinal species and biome shifts, and changed visitation patterns. Other changes are regional (e.g., combinedEast coast subsidence and sea level rise increase coastal erosionand deposition, whereas, on the Pacific coast, tectonic upliftnegates sea level rise). Further predictions concern individualparks (e.g., Unique fens of Bruce Peninsular NP will migratelakewards with lowered water levels, but structural regulation of Lake Huron for navigation and power generation would destroythe fens). Knowledge gaps are the most important findings. Forexample: we could not form conclusions about glacial massbalance, or its effects on rivers and fjords. Likewise, for theEast Coast Labrador Current we could neither estimate temperature and salinity effects of extra iceberg formation, nor the further effects on marine food chains, and breeding park seabirds. We recommend 1) Research on specific large knowledge gaps; 2) Climate change information exchange with protected area agencies in other northern countries; and 3) incorporating climate uncertainty into park plans and management. We discuss options for a new park management philosophy in the face of massive change and uncertainty.  相似文献
3.
环境质量评价中关键因子识别的方法研究   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
应用投影寻踪聚类方法分析环境影响指标的数据资料 ,不但可以根据数据内在特性确定各评价指标的相对权重 ,避免权重人为给定的任意性 ,而且还可以通过逐次筛选找出影响环境质量的关键因子。本文将该方法成功地应用于南京市秦淮河水环境评价中 ,筛选出了影响秦淮河水质的关键因子 ,可供秦淮河水环境监测和治理作参考。另一方面 ,该方法还可以推广应用于其它类似问题的综合分析研究中。  相似文献
4.
千岛湖镇垃圾填埋场渗滤液对千岛湖环境影响分析   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
通过对垃圾场渗滤液和附近水域监测,分析了垃圾场的污染状况和对千岛湖造成的危害。  相似文献
5.
If sustainable development of Canadian waters is to be achieved, a realistic and manageable framework is required for assessing cumulative effects. The objective of this paper is to describe an approach for aquatic cumulative effects assessment that was developed under the Northern Rivers Ecosystem Initiative. The approach is based on a review of existing monitoring practices in Canada and the presence of existing thresholds for aquatic ecosystem health assessments. It suggests that a sustainable framework is possible for cumulative effects assessment of Canadian waters that would result in integration of national indicators of aquatic health, integration of national initiatives (e.g., water quality index, environmental effects monitoring), and provide an avenue where long-term monitoring programs could be integrated with baseline and follow-up monitoring conducted under the environmental assessment process.  相似文献
6.
Sustainable development of the aquatic environment depends upon routine and defensible cumulative effects assessment (CEA). CEA is the process of predicting the consequences of development relative to an assessment of existing environmental quality. Theoretically, it provides an on-going mechanism to evaluate if levels of development exceed the environment's assimilative capacity; i.e., its ability to sustain itself. In practice, the link between CEA and sustainable development has not been realized because CEA concepts and methods have developed along two dichotomous tracks. One track views CEA as an extension of the environmental assessment (EA) process for project developments. Under this track, stressor-based (S-B) methods have been developed where the emphasis is on local, project-related stressors, their link with aquatic indicators, and the potential for environmental effects through stressor-indicator interactions. S-B methods focus on the proposed development and prediction of project-related effects. They lack a mechanism to quantify existing aquatic quality especially at scales broader than an isolated development. This limitation results in the prediction of potential effects relative to a poorly defined baseline state. The other track views CEA as a broader, regional assessment tool where effects-based (E-B) methods specialize in quantification of existing aquatic effects over broad spatial scales. However, the predictive capabilities of E-B methods are limited because they are retrospective, i.e., the stressor causing the effect is identified after the effect has been measured. When used in isolation, S-B and E-B methods do not address CEA in the context necessary for sustainable development. However, if the strengths of these approaches were integrated into a holistic framework for CEA, an operational mechanism would exist to better monitor and assess sustainable development of our aquatic resources. This paper reviews the existing conceptual basis of CEA in Canada including existing methodologies, limitations and strengths. A conceptual framework for integrating project-based and regional-based CEA is presented.  相似文献
7.
从城市规划角度浅议城市道路噪声污染问题解决途径   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1  
对兰州市近三年来交通噪声的特征在城市空间结构的背景上,以公众反映为尺度进行了分析评价,研究表明,(1)公众对不同城市空间结构上道路噪声反映均为起伏大、吵闹和一般不可接受;(2)部分区域噪声污染指标超标与早期规划有关;(3)近期道路规划和建设是噪声下降的主要原因;最后指出,基于规划基础上的环境问题规律性的研究和基于环境保护理念下的规划设计模式的研究将是今后环保专业和规划专业人员共同探讨的课题。  相似文献
8.
基于环保竣工验收对建设项目环评的思考   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
结合建设项目环境保护竣工验收实际案例,指出了在依据环评文件进行环保竣工验收经常遇到的问题。提出环境影响评价单位应基于经济技术可行性、实际可操作性提出环保措施,合理识别预测污染因子等反馈意见;环保审批部门应在环评单位与环保验收单位之间建立起交流、沟通的渠道,以更好地把好环评审批和环保验收审批两个关。  相似文献
9.
This article, a theoretical perspective based on a literature study, is a critical evaluation of SIA as part of the EIA process in South Africa against the background of international guidelines and best practices. It includes sections on the historical background of the development of SIA in South Africa, the legal status and requirements of SIA in the country, and a critical evaluation of SIA regulation in South Africa. The conclusion reached in the article is that the persistent problems of SIA practice, experienced in other parts of the world, are also evident in South Africa. Apart from institutional, financial and professional constraints, there are also serious problems associated with approach and methods. This conclusion confirms the findings of empirical studies that SIA in South Africa is neglected, that the practice of SIA in South Africa is not yet on a sound footing, and that it does not receive the professional attention it deserves in a country beset by enormous social challenges. To conclude the article recommendations are made to improve the level of SIA practice in South Africa, and the possible significance of this national case study for international practice is indicated.  相似文献
10.
改进环境影响评价制度监督管理方法的几点考虑   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
改进环境影响评价制度监督管理方法的几点考虑罗崇富SUGGESTIONOFIMPROVINGSUPERVISIONANDMANAGEMENTOFEIASYSTEM¥LuoChongfu(XinjiangEnvironmentMonitoringCent...  相似文献
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