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The SITES reserve selection system: A critical review   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Numerous models have been put forth to help with the growing demand for the establishment of biodiversity reserves. One site selection model that has been used in several recent studies is SITES [S.J. Andelman, I. Ball, F.W. Davis and D.M. Stoms, SITES V 1.0: an analytical toolbox for designing ecoregional conservation portfolios, Unpublished manual prepared for the nature conservancy, 1999, 1–43. (available at )]. SITES includes two heuristic solvers: based on Greedy and Simulated Annealing. We discuss the formulation of the SITES model, present a new formulation for that problem, and solve a number of test problems optimally using off-the-shelf software. We compared our optimal results with the SITES Simulated Annealing heuristic and found that SITES frequently returns significantly suboptimal solutions. Our results add further support to the argument, started by Underhill [L.G. Underhill, Optimal and suboptimal reserve selection algorithms, Biol. Conserv. 70 (1994) 85–87], continuing through Rodrigues and Gaston [A.S.L. Rodrigues and K.J. Gaston, Optimization in reserve selection procedures – why not?, Biol. Conserv. 107 (2002) 123–129], for greater integration of optimal methods in the reserve design/selection literature.  相似文献
2.
Lake Vela, located in the Portuguese littoral-centre, is a temperate shallow lake exhibiting a high trophic status. This aquatic ecosystem has been potentially exposed to contamination generated by agricultural and livestock activities held in their drainage basin, which seriously compromise their health. This work summarizes some background information and presents the problem formulation step of the ERA. Therefore, it evaluates the characteristics of the stressor(s), describes the ecological system and receptors and suggests a conceptual model, which predicts the potential exposure pathways, relating suspected sources to the defined endpoints. This introductory step also described an analysis plan on the entire study, which includes a delineation of the assessment design, data needs, measures, and methods for conducting the analysis phase of the risk assessment process.  相似文献
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The cyclic voltammograms of terbacil and lenacil at the hanging mercury drop electrode showed a single well defined four electron irreversible peak in universal buffer of pH 4.0 for both compounds. The peak potentials were shifted to more negative values on the increase of pH of the medium, implying the involvement of protons in the electrode reaction and that the proton transfer reaction precedes the proper electrode process. The four electron single peak may be attributed to the simultaneous reduction of carbonyl groups present in 2 and 4 in pyrimidine ring of terbacil and lenacil to the corresponding hydroxy derivative. Based on the interfacial adsorptive character of the terbacil and lenacil onto the mercury electrode surface, a simple sensitive and low cost differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetric procedure was optimized for the analysis of terbacil and lenacil. The optimal operational conditions of the proposed procedure were accumulation potential E acc = −0.4 V, accumulation time t acc = 80 s, scan rate = 40 mV s−1, pulse amplitude = 25 mV using a universal buffer pH 4.0 as a supporting electrolyte. The linear concentration range was found to be 1.5 × 10−5 to 1.2 × 10−9 mol/l and 1.5 × 10−5 to 2.5 × 10−8 mol/l with the lower detection limit of 1.22 × 10−9 and 2.0 × 10−8 mol/l. The correlation coefficient and relative standard deviation values are found to be 0.942, 0.996, 1.64% and 1.23%, respectively, for 10 replicants. The procedure was successfully applied for determination of terbacil and lenacil in formulations, mixed formulations, environmental samples such as fruit samples and spiked water samples.  相似文献
4.
硫酸工业污染物排放标准预计将于2010年内发布实施。在对有关法律法规、规范性文件等进行研究,对我国硫酸工业现状和国外相关排放标准进行分析的基础上,对硫酸工业污染物排放标准制定中有关适用范围、时段划分、污染物控制等内容进行了思考。  相似文献
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