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1.
危险废物浸出毒性试验方法的研究   总被引:12,自引:2,他引:10       下载免费PDF全文
在分析各国危险废物浸出毒性试验方法的基础上,综合考虑我国气候状况(降雨量、酸雨现状)及工业固体废物处理处置现状,提出我国危险废物浸出毒性研究的技术路线为:通过模拟工业固体废物填埋场在不规范填埋处置且受酸雨影响条件下,有毒物质浸出向地下渗滤造成对地下水的污染,确定浸出毒性的浸取方法.浸出毒性保护目标为地下水,同时还介绍了主要技术参数液固比、浸取剂pH值和类型的确定方法.  相似文献
2.
危险废物生态毒性鉴别指标研究   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
生态毒性是危险废物的危险特性鉴别指标之一,生态毒性鉴别指标确定的基础是关于毒性化学物质和固体废物的生态毒理学(评估指标)研究.比较研究了国外毒性物质和危险废物的生态毒性鉴别指标及其制定的方法学,分析了中国的研究现状,对中国危险废物生态毒性鉴别指标制定的方法学提出了建议.  相似文献
3.
One of India's major concerns is the increasing level of land pollution largely due to the uncontrolled disposal of industrialsolid and hazardous waste. With rapid industrialization, thegeneration of industrial solid and hazardous waste has increasedappreciably and the nature of waste generated has become complex.Their impacts on the ecological bodies are noticeable. The article describes the details of studies conducted using Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure, to estimate the toxicity effects of the metals viz., chromium, zinc, manganese,iron, nickel, cobalt and copper by the Zero Headspace Extractorfor the sludges generated from effluent treatment plant of steeltube, wire and plating industries on environment constituentslike groundwater, surface water and land. Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure determines the mobility of organic and inorganic analytes of liquid, solid or multiphase waste from hazardous solid wastes in the form of primary and secondary extracts. These extracts are mixed in equal volumeproportion and analyzed by Direct Reading 2000 spectrophotometer.The amount of heavy metals observed during the studies in theleachates were found and the results were compared with HazardousWaste categories as per Indian Standards, TCLP regulatory limitsgiven by United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) andGermany Leachate Quality Standards and it was observed that theywere on higher side, needing a proper preventive concept of sludge management including handling, treatment, recovery and disposal.  相似文献
4.
我国危险废物经营单位监测中的技术问题和建议   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
根据2007—2013年对持环保部发证的危险废物经营单位开展监督性监测的实际情况和工作经验,从关注焚烧企业的二 口 恶 英监测、加强危险废物企业日常监测、开展危险废物鉴别技术方法研究等方面,探讨我国危险废物监测技术上现存的主要问题和发展方向,对今后全国各省自行组织危险废物许可证的审核和监督性监测等相关工作给出了建议。  相似文献
5.
For approximately 50 years, beginning in the 1920s, hazardous wastes were disposed in an 11-hectare area of the Marine Corps Base (MCB) Quantico, Virginia, USA known as the Old Landfill. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT compounds were the primary contaminants of concern. These contaminants migrated into the sediments of a 78-hectare area of the Potomac River, the Quantico Embayment. Fish tissue contamination resulted in the MCB posting signs along the embayment shoreline warning fishermen to avoid consumption. In this paper, we interpret total PCB (t-PCBs) and total DDT (t-DDT, sum of six DDT, DDD, and DDE isomers) data from monitoring studies. We use the ratio of p,p'-DDD to p,p'-DDE concentrations as a tracer to distinguish site-related from regional contamination. The median DDD/DDE ratio in Quantico Embayment sediments (3.5) was significantly higher than the median ratio (0.71) in sediments from nearby Powells Creek, used as a reference area. In general, t-PCBs and t-DDT concentrations were significantly higher in killifish (Fundulus diaphanus) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from the Quantico Embayment compared with Powells Creek. For both species, Quantico Embayment fish had mean or median DDD/DDE ratios greater than one. Median ratios were significantly higher in Quantico Embayment (4.6) than Powells Creek (0.28) whole body carp. In contrast, t-PCBs and t-DDT in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets were similar in Quantico Embayment and Powells Creek collections, with median ratios of 0.34 and 0.26, respectively. Differences between species may be attributable to movement (carp and killifish being more localized) and feeding patterns (carp ingesting sediment while feeding). We recommend that environmental scientists use this ratio when investigating sites with DDT contamination.  相似文献
6.
危险废物焚烧处置项目竣工环境保护验收监测要点   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
对危险废物焚烧处置项目竣工环境保护验收监测中尚需明确的要点进行了剖析,并从入炉危废种类及比例、焚烧量的控制、助燃剂加入量、空气过剩系统的把握,以及安全管理检查要点等方面,提出相应的解决办法。  相似文献
7.
Although considerable attention is devoted to environmental monitoring and assessment with respect to both pollutants and the status of particular plant or animal populations, less attention is devoted to assessing people's attitudes about the relative importance of ecological resources. In this paper we examine the attitudes and perceptions about ecological resources of people living around the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS), in South Carolina. Our overall hypothesis is that people who are directly affected by the possible outcomes and consequences of a particular hazard (i.e., those people employed at SRS) will undervalue the risks and overvalue the potential benefits from future land uses that favor continued site activity, compared to people who live near but are not employed at SRS. We interviewed 286 people attending the Aiken Trials horse show on 14 March 1997. There were few gender differences, although men hunted and fished more than women, women ranked three environmental concerns as more severe than did men, and women were more concerned about the effect of SRS on property values. Maintenance of SRS as a National Environmental Research Park ranked first as a future land use; nuclear production ranked second, followed by hunting and hiking. Only residential development ranked very low as a future land use. There were many differences as a function of employment history at SRS: 1) people who work at SRS think that the federal government should spend funds to clean up all nuclear facilities, and they think less money should be spent on other environmental problems than did non-employees, 2) people who work at SRS ranked continued current uses of SRS higher than did people who never worked at SRS, and 3) people who work at SRS are less concerned about the storage of nuclear material or accidents at the site than are people who never worked at the site.  相似文献
8.
To investigate the environmental safety of waste disposal landfill sites and of land reclaimed from such sites, we evaluated the toxicity of leachate from these sites by a combination of bioassays in the Japanese killifish medaka Oryzias latipes. We tested for lethal toxicity in adult and larval medaka and for hatching inhibition of embryos from eggs. As biochemical evidence of the effects of leachate exposure, CYP1A (EROD activity) and vitellogenin (Vtg) were induced. We also bioassayed water-treated leachate and downstream river water. Leachate solution was lethal to larval and adult medaka. Embryo hatchability was inhibited, and abnormal hatching, spinal deformity and anisophthalmia occurred in embryos exposed to leachate solution. CYP1A was induced by exposure to leachate solution diluted to 1.0%, and EROD activity was significantly higher than in control. Vtg and unknown proteins were induced in the sera of male medaka exposed to the diluted leachate solution. Conventional water treatments worked effectively to remove toxic compounds but did not work well to remove element ions, including heavy metals. Treated leachate produced neither lethal toxicity nor hatching abnormalities during the exposure period. Fish toxicity tests for leachate would be useful for monitoring the environmental safety of landfill sites.  相似文献
9.
Although considerable attention is devoted to environmental monitoring and assessment with respect to both pollutants and the status of particular plant or animal populations, less attention is devoted to assessing people's attitudes about the relative importance of ecological resources. In this paper we examine the attitudes and perceptions about ecological resources of people living around the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS), in South Carolina. Our overall hypothesis is that people who are directly affected by the possible outcomes and consequences of a particular hazard (i.e., those people employed at SRS) will undervalue the risks and overvalue the potential benefits from future land uses that favor continued site activity, compared to people who live near but are not employed at SRS. We interviewed 286 people attending the Aiken Trials horse show on 14 March 1997. There were few gender differences, although men hunted and fished more than women, women ranked three environmental concerns as more severe than did men, and women were more concerned about the effect of SRS on property values. Maintenance of SRS as a National Environmental Research Park ranked first as a future land use; nuclear production ranked second, followed by hunting and hiking. Only residential development ranked very low as a future land use. There were many differences as a function of employment history at SRS: 1) people who work at SRS think that the federal government should spend funds to clean up all nuclear facilities, and they think less money should be spent on other environmental problems than did non-employees, 2) people who work at SRS ranked continued current uses of SRS higher than did people who never worked at SRS, and 3) people who work at SRS are less concerned about the storage of nuclear material or accidents at the site than are people who never worked at the site.  相似文献
10.
从环境风险管理出发,探讨危险废物对农业土壤污染的途径,提出土壤危险废物污染的风险管理内容和方法,初步建立辽宁省农业土壤危险废物污染的预警指标体系。  相似文献
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