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In response to the recent focus by the U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency on bioassessment of lakes, a multimetric index was developed for New Jersey lakes and reservoirs using benthicmacroinvertebrates. Benthic samples were collected fromreference and impaired lakes with muck and intermediate sedimentsin central and northern New Jersey during summer 1997. We used astepwise process to evaluate properties of candidate metrics andselected five for the Lake Macroinvertebrate Integrity Index(LMII): Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), percent chironomidindividuals, percent collector-gatherer taxa, percentoligochaetes/leeches, and number of Diptera taxa. We scoredmetrics as the fraction of the best expected value (based on allsites) achieved at a site and summed them into the LMII. Evaluation of the LMII showed that it discriminated well betweenreference and impaired lakes and was strongly related to severalpotential stressors. Chemical and physical gradients distinguished between reference and impaired lakes, and the LMIIsummarized these gradients well. The LMII corresponded stronglywith land use, but some lakes with more urban land use stillachieved high scores. Based on a power analysis, the ability ofthe LMII to detect differences in condition was sensitive to thenumber of samples from each lake.  相似文献
Desertification Evaluated Using an Integrated Environmental Assessment Model   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
Desertification has been defined as land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities (United Nations, 1992). A technique for identifying and assessing areas at risk fordesertification in the arid, semi-arid, and subhumid regionsof the United States was developed by the Desert Research Institute and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), using selected environmental indicators integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS). Five indicators were selected: potential erosion, grazing pressure, climatic stress (expressed as a function of changesin the Palmer Drought Severity Index [PDSI]), change invegetation greenness (derived from the Normalized DifferenceVegetation Index [NDVI]), and weedy invasives as a percentof total plant cover. The data were integrated over aregional geographic setting using a GIS, which facilitateddata display, development and exploration of data relationships, including manipulation and simulation testing. By combining all five data layers, landscapes having a varying risk for land degradation were identified, providing a tool which could be used to improve landmanagement efficiency.  相似文献
上海市秋季典型PM2.5污染过程数值预报分析   总被引:11,自引:5,他引:6  
基于2012年10月上海出现的一次典型PM2.5污染案例,验证评估上海市空气质量数值预报系统Model-3/CMAQ预报性能,采用过程分析技术,定量评估不同大气物理化学过程对上海代表性点位PM2.5浓度变化的作用规律。结果表明:Model-3/CMAQ模式系统能较好地反映PM2.5的浓度变化趋势与特点。对于上海市区点位(徐汇上师大)和东南部点位(奉贤海湾和浦东惠南),PM2.5浓度上升主要受本地源排放影响,其贡献比例超过40%,其次是区域大气传输作用的影响。对于西北部点位(崇明监测站和青浦淀山湖),区域大气传输是PM2.5浓度上升的主要原因,贡献比例超过70%,其次是源排放。各点位PM2.5浓度的主要去除途径均为大气传输,贡献比例均超过70%,其次是干沉降。气溶胶过程对PM2.5主要起二次颗粒物生成的作用,特别是市区及东南部点位,贡献比例较西北部点位更高。  相似文献
我国河流水质评价污染因子选择方案探讨   总被引:9,自引:1,他引:8  
在选用综合污染指数法进行地表水水质评价时 ,由于污染因子选择不尽一致 ,造成地表水水质评价结果不具有可比性。为了使地表水评价结果具有可比性 ,必须选择相对固定的评价因子。笔者对我国七大流域 1 990~ 2 0 0 1年水质监测数据进行了全面分析 ,提出了能够反映我国河流污染现状的污染因子选择方案。  相似文献
我国流域水生态完整性评价方法构建   总被引:9,自引:8,他引:1  
流域水生态完整性评价是指通过对水生态系统中不同水生态指标(生物和非生物)的监测以及由数学方法综合形成的综合评价指数,来反映水生态系统完整性状况。近年来,世界各国水环境管理政策发生了变化,开始强调生态保护,重视水体的生态质量。中国现行的常规理化监测指标(如COD、氨氮、BOD5)很难满足水环境管理的需求,难以全面准确地反映水环境质量变化的趋势。因此,在借鉴欧美发达国家流域水生态完整性评价方法的基础上,结合中国目前监测现状以及流域水环境管理需求,构建了包括物理生境指标、理化指标、水生生物指标在内的流域水生态完整性监测与评价方法,以期为中国流域水质目标管理技术体系的业务化运行提供可资借鉴的技术支撑,实现从单一的化学指标监测转向综合的水生态系统监测,实现流域水生态完整性的监测与评价。  相似文献
Using Multiple Taxonomic Groups to Index the Ecological Condition of Lakes   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Biological indicators of communitiestypically reflect a common environmental signalreflecting the general condition of the ecosystem, as well asindividual signals by indicators differentiallysensitive to particular environmental conditions. Wedescribe here a method of integrating and interpretingsuch indicators from 19 New England lakes for fivetaxonomic groups (diatoms, benthos, zooplankton, fish,and birds). Our approach provides a systematicstandardized way to integrate multiple metrics fromdifferent taxonomic groups by addressing four elementscrucial to analyzing data from multiple indicators: covariate control, re-scaling of data, standardizing the sign of responses, and dimensional reduction. We evaluated the biologicalmetrics against individual environmental stressors andagainst multivariate physicochemical metricscharacterizing general anthropogenic stress among thelakes. The method detected a response to variationin the gross environmental condition of the lakes thatwas correlated across taxa and metrics. In addition,a differential response to near shore conditions wasdemonstrated for fish. The success of the approach inthis study lends support to its general application toecological monitoring involving complex data sets.  相似文献
On Developing Bioindicators for Human and Ecological Health   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Risk assessors and risk managersgenerally either examine ecological health (usingbioindicators) or human health (using biomarkers ofexposure or effect). In this paper we suggest thatit is possible and advantageous to developbioindicators that can be used to assess exposureand effect for both human and non-human receptors. We describe the characteristics of suitablebioindicators for both human and ecological health,using mourning doves (Zenaida macroura),raccoons (Procyon lotor), and bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) as examples, and list thegeneral characteristics of other species that wouldmake them useful indicators for assessing both humanand ecological health. Bioindicators can beused cross-sectionally to assess the status ofecosystems and risk as well as longitudinally formonitoring changes or evaluating remediation. Forboth human and ecological risk assessment, there arethree sets of characteristics to consider whenselecting bioindicators: biological relevance,methodological relevance, and societal relevance. An indicator which fails to fulfill these is notlikely to be considered cost-effective and is likelyto be abandoned. The indicator should be readilymeasured and must measure an important range ofimpacts. For long-term support of a bioindicator,the indicator should be easily understood, and becost effective. We suggest that bioindicators thatcan also be used for both ecological and humanhealth risk assessment are optimal.  相似文献
Selecting indicator species to monitor ecological integrity: a review   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
We review critical issues that must be considered when selectingindicator species for a monitoring program that aims to maintainor restore ecological integrity. First, we examine the pros andcons of different management approaches on which a conservationprogram can be based and conclude that ecosystem management ismost appropriate. We then identify potential indicators ofecological integrity at various levels of the ecosystem, with aparticular emphasis on the species level. We conclude that,although the use of indicator species remains contentious, it canbe useful if (1) many species representing various taxa and lifehistories are included in the monitoring program, (2) theirselection is primarily based on a sound quantitative databasefrom the focal region, and (3) caution is applied wheninterpreting their population trends to distinguish actualsignals from variations that may be unrelated to thedeterioration of ecological integrity. Finally, we present anddiscuss different methods that have been used to select indicatorspecies.  相似文献
地理信息系统在监测综合技术中应用的评述   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4  
空间化监测信息的综合加工和快速而形象的反映是环境管理的迫切需求,亦是当前监测综合技术发展的主要特征。监测信息的综合分析是一个复合型的巨大系统,引入地理信息系统,不仅可满足上述需求,而且可作为支持该系统的有力工具。本文重点讨论了监测综合分析中应用地理信息系统的必要性、现状和特点。  相似文献
Integrated Assessment (IA) is an evolving research community that aims to address complex societal issues through an interdisciplinary process. The most-widely used method in Integrated Assessment is modeling. The state of the art in Integrated Assessment modeling is described in this paper in terms of history, general features, classes of models, and in terms of the strengths and weaknesses, and the dilemmasand challenges modelers face. One of the key challenges is the issue of uncertainty management. The paper outlines the sources and types of uncertainty modelers are confronted with. It then discusses how uncertainties are currently managed inIntegrated Assessment modeling, on which evaluation it is argued that complementary methods are needed that allow for pluralistic uncertainty management. The paperfinalises with discussing pluralistic concepts and approaches that are currently explored in the IA community and that seem promising in view of the challenge to incorporate explicitly more than one hidden perspective in models.  相似文献
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