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The extent of degradation of benthic communities of the Chesapeake Bay was determined by applying a previously developed benthic index of biotic integrity at three spatial scales. Allocation of sampling was probability-based allowing areal estimates of degradation with known confidence intervals. The three spatial scales were: (1) the tidal Chesapeake Bay; (2) the Elizabeth River watershed; and (3) two small tidal creeks within the Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River that are part of a sediment contaminant remediation effort. The areas covered varied from 10–1 to 104 km2 and all were sampled in 1999. The Chesapeake Bay was divided into ten strata, the Elizabeth River into five strata and each of the two tidal creeks was a single stratum. The determination of the number and size of strata was based upon consideration of both managerially useful units for restoration and limitations of funding. Within each stratum 25 random locations were sampled for benthic community condition. In 1999 the percent of the benthos with poor benthic community condition for the entire Chesapeake Bay was 47% and varied from 20% at the mouth of the Bay to 72% in the Potomac River. The estimated area of benthos with poor benthic community condition for the Elizabeth River was 64% and varied from 52–92%. Both small tidal creeks had estimates of 76% of poor benthic community condition. These kinds of estimates allow environmental managers to better direct restoration efforts and evaluate progress towards restoration. Patterns of benthic community condition at smaller spatial scales may not be correctly inferred from larger spatial scales. Comparisons of patterns in benthic community condition across spatial scales, and between combinations of strata, must be cautiously interpreted.  相似文献
2.
The Chesapeake Bay benthic index of biotic integrity (B-IBI) was developed to assess benthic community health and environmental quality in Chesapeake Bay. The B-IBI provides Chesapeake Bay monitoring programs with a uniform tool with which to characterize bay-wide benthic community condition and assess the health of the Bay. A probability-based design permits unbiased annual estimates of areal degradation within the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries with quantifiable precision. However, of greatest interest to managers is the identification of problem areas most in need of restoration. Here we apply the B-IBI to benthic data collected in the Bay since 1994 to assess benthic community degradation by Chesapeake Bay Program segment and water depth. We used a new B-IBI classification system that improves the reliability of the estimates of degradation. Estimates were produced for 67 Chesapeake Bay Program segments. Greatest degradation was found in areas that are known to experience hypoxia or show toxic contamination, such as the mesohaline portion of the Potomac River, the Patapsco River, and the Maryland mainstem. Logistic regression models revealed increased probability of degraded benthos with depth for the lower Potomac River, Patapsco River, Nanticoke River, lower York River, and the Maryland mainstem. Our assessment of degradation by segment and water depth provided greater resolution of relative condition than previously available, and helped define the extent of degradation in Chesapeake Bay.  相似文献
3.
We developed an index to differentiate between low dissolved oxygen effects and sediment contamination effects for sites classified as degraded by the Chesapeake Bay Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (B-IBI), using discriminant analysis. We tested 126 metrics for differences between sites with low dissolved oxygen and sites with contaminated sediments. A total of 16 benthic community metrics met the variable selection criteria and were used to develop a discriminant function that classified degraded sites into one of two stress groups. The resulting discriminant function correctly classified 77% of the low dissolved oxygen sites and 80% of the contaminated sites in the validation data.  相似文献
4.
广西右江东笋断面溶解氧(DO)呈现5—11月浓度较低,12月及1—4月浓度较高的变化规律。从水温、藻类呼吸、沉积物耗氧、有机物耗氧、上游来水等方面分析了东笋断面低DO形成的原因。结果表明,5—11月东笋断面DO浓度较低,主要是受夏季高温和水利工程运行等非污染型因素的影响。右江流域夏秋季水温较高,限制了水体DO浓度的上限。热分层现象导致百色水库中层水体DO浓度较低,而水利枢纽发电时的下泄水正是中层水体,因此,下泄水DO浓度低是导致5—11月东笋断面DO浓度低的主要原因。东笋河段沉积物和有机物耗氧对DO浓度的影响很小,藻类呼吸作用对DO浓度的影响有限。  相似文献
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