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1.
城市街道地表物特性分析   总被引:29,自引:0,他引:29  
通过对城市街道地表物的收集、处理、分析和典型降水的径流冲刷实测,全面探究了城市街道地表物的分布、累积和冲刷规律,并对其污染物的含量和污染物总量进行了定量计算。为现代城市非点源污染截污处理和环境综合整治提供了理论和实践依据。  相似文献
2.
北京市城市非点源污染特征的研究   总被引:18,自引:1,他引:17  
通过监测降雨径流水质,研究了北京市城市非点源污染的特征。结果表明,北京市城市地表径流水排入任何地表水体都会对其造成污染,且城市地表径流水的大部分水质指标已经达到了污水综合排放的三级标准,因此,我们对待城市地表径流水应该如对待污水一样处理。对于TN、TP、CODCr、BOD5浓度,路面径流要高于屋顶径流,而对于SS浓度,屋顶径流高于路面径流。总磷TP颗粒吸附态的污染物对总污染物的贡献最大,对于路面径流高达83.1%,对于屋顶径流为68.6%,其次是CODCr,总氮TN的颗粒吸附态的贡献较低。通过沉积或过滤去除城市地表径流中的悬浮颗粒物,可以提高城市地表径流的水质。所有污染物随降雨过程变化的总体趋势为雨水初期径流污染物浓度很高,随降雨历时的延长,污染物浓度逐渐下降并趋于稳定。初期径流危害较大。  相似文献
3.
滇池东南岸农业和富磷区入湖河流地表径流及污染特征   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4  
应用聚类分析与因子分析方法,通过8次常规监测,对滇池东南岸10条以农业面源和受磷矿开采区影响的入湖河流的地表径流及其水质污染特征进行了分析,并探讨了其空间差异性.在南岸选取降雨过程相同的3条河流,开展暴雨径流监测,探讨污染物在降雨过程中的流失特征.结果表明,新宝象河的平均流量为2.6 m3/s,占总入湖流量的26.5%;总氮、总磷、化学需氧量、悬浮物是滇池的主要污染指标,许多河流均已严重超标.河流水质在空间上可分为3类,具有明显的空间差异性.总氮、总磷、溶解磷、硝态氮对水质污染的贡献率达到了53.636%,氮、磷含量是河流水质污染的主要贡献因子.降雨条件下化学需氧量、悬浮物浓度增长迅速,流量、悬浮物与大多数水质指标均有相关性,磷矿开采对河流水质的影响在降雨条件下更加明显,其悬浮物浓度在降雨条件下比只受农业面源影响的河流最高高出1.9倍.  相似文献
4.
北京市水环境非点源污染监测与负荷估算研究   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3  
文章对北京全市域范围开展水环境非点源污染监测以及污染负荷估算研究。监测结果表明,天然降雨氨氮、总氮污染程度高;城区典型下垫面降雨径流的有机污染十分严重,其中屋面降雨径流总氮和氨氮污染最严重,路面降雨径流COD和总磷污染最严重;下垫面降雨径流汇入城市排水管网后,由于冲洗下水道中的沉积物,使得水质污染进一步恶化。农业典型小流域面源污染对水质影响也很明显。城市非点源污染负荷估算选用SWMM暴雨径流模型,农业非点源污染负荷模型选用改进的输出系数模型,估算结果表明:城市非点源污染主要来自大气湿沉降、综合用地、路面和屋面等,农业非点源污染主要来自耕地和林地;全市污染物排放总量中,点源排放总量与非点源排放总量基本各占50%左右。为进一步挖掘污染减排空间,完善总量减排体系提供了依据。  相似文献
5.
贵州农用地土壤在长期的耕作过程中,承载大量的重金属污染物,影响土壤质量。采集了贵州东部、南部、中部、北部主要农业非点源重金属污染区土壤样品进行检测。结果表明,贵州农业非点源重金属污染物主要是Hg、Pb,贵州省农业非点源污染土壤中重金属累积污染程度Hg>Pb>Cd>As>Cr。各地区污染物种类和程度不同,重金属As污染为中部地区较高,农业土壤Hg、Pb污染主要集中在中部和东部地区,Cd污染主要发生在南部区域。  相似文献
6.
This study was undertaken to determine the importance of riparian buffers to stream ecology in agricultural areas. The original Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) data set was partitioned to represent agricultural sites in Maryland's Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions. ANOVA, multiple linear regression (MLR), and CART regression tree models were developed using riparian and site catchment landscape characteristics. MBSS data were both stratified by physiographic region and analyzed as a combined data set. All models indicated that land management at the site was not the controlling factor for fish IBIs (FIBI) at that site and, hence, using FIBI to evaluate site-scale factors would not be a prudent procedure. Measures of instream habitat and location in the stream network were the dominant explanatory factors for FIBI models. Both CART and MLR models indicated that forest buffers were influential on benthic IBIs (BIBI). Explanatory variables reflected instream conditions, adjacent landscape influence, and chemistry in the Coastal Plains sites, all of which are relatively site specific. However, for Piedmont sites, hydrologic factors were important, in addition to adjacent landscape influence, and chemistry. Both Coastal Plain and Piedmont CART models identified several hydrologic factors, emphasizing the dominant control of hydrology on the physical habitat index (PHI). Riparian buffers were a secondary influence on PHI in the Coastal Plain, but not in the Piedmont. Between 40% and 70% of the variation in FIBI, BIBI, and PHI was explained by the “easily obtainable” variables available from the MBSS data set. While these are empirical results specific to Maryland, the general findings are of use to other locations where the establishment of forest buffers is considered as an aquatic ecosystem restoration measure.  相似文献
7.
The uncertainty of modeling input will increase the simulation error, and this situation always happens in a model without user-friendly interface. WinVAST model, developed by the University of Virginia in 2003, treats an entire multi-catchment by a tree-view structure. Its extra computer programs can connect geographic information system (GIS). Model users can prepare all the necessary information in ArcGIS. Extracting information from GIS interface can not only decrease the inconvenience of data input, but also lower the uncertainty due to data preparation. The Daiyuku Creek and Qupoliao Creek in the Fei-tsui reservoir watershed in Northern Taiwan provided the setting for the case study reported herein. The required information, including slope, stream length, subbasin area, soil type and land-use condition, for WinVAST model should be prepared in a Microsoft Access database, which is the project file of WinVAST with extension mdb. In ArcGIS interface, when the soil layer, land-use layer, and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) map are prepared, all the watershed information can be created as well. This study compared the simulation results from automatically generated input and manual input. The results show that the relative simulation error resulting from the rough process of data input can be around 30% in runoff simulation, and even reach 70% in non-point source pollution (NPSP) simulation. It could conclude that GIS technology is significant for predicting watershed responses by WinVAST model, because it can efficiently reduce the uncertainty induced by input errors.  相似文献
8.
The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution of heavy metal in soil and evaluate the dissolution of metal from soil to ponded-surface water, leaching through soil profiles and metal uptake in grass as related to different land-use practices. The data provided a scientific basis for best-management practices for land use in Khli Ti watershed. The watershed has a Pb-contamination problem from the previous operation of a Pb-ore concentrator and abandoned Zn–Pb mine. Sampling sites were selected from a land-use map, with land-use types falling into the following four categories: forest, agricultural land, residential area and road. Soil, ponded-surface water, grass samples and soil profiles were collected. The study related soil characteristics from different land-use practices and locations with observed metal concentrations in ponded-surface water and soil. High enrichment factors of Pb and As in soil were found. Partitioning coefficient, Kd values were in the order: Cr > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cd > Zn. Soil disturbance from land-use activities including tillage and traffic increased leaching of trace metal from soils. Pb in soil was significantly taken up by grass even though the Transfer Factor, TF values were rather low. Agricultural activities in the watershed must be limited. Moreover, land encroachments in the upper and middle part of the watershed which have high potential of Pb must be strictly controlled in order to reduce the Pb contamination from non-point sources.  相似文献
9.
平原感潮河网地区非点源污染监测方法   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
平原感潮河网地区非点源污染严重以及交叉污染等特性,造成了严重的环境污染和环境安全问题。由于非点源污染监测资料不完善,相关研究的深度、广度以及监测管理存在不足,确定非点源污染大小、少资料区域污染定量化预测等问题都是亟待解决的难点。以南通平原感潮河网地区为例,对非点源污染中的不确定性及监测方法进行探讨,提出分别针对平原河网圩区和平原河网非圩区的非点源污染监测方法。  相似文献
10.
基于3S技术的桂林市南溪河污染现状调查   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
城区小流域常是水污染较重的区域,又是污染源密集的地方,其非点源污染的监测与评估,需要实用方法。本调查基于3S技术,开展流域的监测与评价,包括空间定位的精度控制、非点源的遥感分类解译、采用排污系数对非点源污染评估、对污染源及污水管网做GIS空间分析。结合水质监测进行污径比和水环境容量的评价。重点讨论了城区人口解译方法和污染源评估方法,探讨典型城区非点源污染监测的思路。  相似文献
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