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1.
The Screening Level Concentration (SLC) approach was used to derive Lowest Effect Level (LEL) and Severe Effect Level (SEL) concentrations for nine metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni, Se, U and V) and three radionuclides (226Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po) released to the aquatic environment during the mining and milling of uranium ore. This method was chosen because it allowed for the best use of the considerable historical and current data collected for diverse purposes in the uranium mining and milling regions of Canada (20,606 data points used in the analysis). Except for Cr, all the LELs derived in this study using the weighted method and published sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) were highly reliable (> 85%) in predicting sites unimpacted by uranium mining/milling defined as sites where reductions in the abundance and species richness of benthic invertebrate communities were < 20%. The derived SEL values and corresponding published SQGs (with the exception of Ni) were not reliable predictors (≤60%) of severe impacts on benthic invertebrate communities when severe impacts are defined as a reduction in abundance and species richness ≥40%. Most of the severely impacted sites had sediment contaminant concentrations well below the SEL values. It is concluded that LELs derived using the weighted method can reliably be used in ecological risk assessments as concentrations below which adverse effects on benthic invertebrate communities are not expected. In contrast, it is recommended that SELs not be used in assessments of uranium mining/milling activities as concentrations above which adverse effects are anticipated.  相似文献
2.
Metals and radionuclide levels in marine birds of the Aleutians are of interest because they are part of subsistence diets of the Aleut people, and can also serve as indicators of marine pollution. We examined geographic and species-specific variations in concentrations of radionuclides in birds and their eggs from Amchitka, the site of underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971, and Kiska Islands (a reference site) in the Aleutians, and the levels of lead, mercury and cadmium in eggs. In 2004 we collected common eiders (Somateria mollissima), tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) and glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) from Amchitka and Kiska, and eggs from eiders and gulls from the two island. We also collected one runt bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) chick from both Amchitka and Kiska Islands. For most species, the levels of radionuclide isotopes were below the minimum detectable activity levels (MDA). Out of 74 cesium-137 analyses, only one composite (gulls) was above the MDA, and out of 14 composites tested for plutonium (Pu-239, 240), only one exceeded the MDA (a guillemots). Three composites out of 14 tested had detectable uranium-238. In all cases, the levels were low and close to the MDAs, and were below those reported for other seabirds. There were significant interspecific differences in metal levels in eggs: gulls had significantly higher levels of cadmium and mercury than the eiders, and eiders had higher levels of lead than gulls. There were few significant differences as a function of island, but eiders had significantly higher levels of cadmium in eggs from Kiska, and gulls had significantly higher levels of mercury on Kiska. The levels of cadmium and mercury in eggs of eiders and gulls from this study were above the median for cadmium and mercury from studies in the literature. The levels of mercury in eggs are within the range known to affect avian predators, but seabirds seem less vulnerable to mercury than other birds. However, the levels of mercury are within the action levels for humans, suggesting some cause for concern if subsistence Aleuts eat a large quantity of eggs.  相似文献
3.
新疆和田地区土壤中天然放射性核素含量水平的调查研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
和田地区土壤中天然放射性核素铀-238、钍-232、镭-226和钾-40按面积加权的均值(Bq·kg-1)依次是37.52±8.73、40.15±5.30、30.01±4.60和531.14±40.77,属正常本底辐射水平.铀镭平衡状况富铀。  相似文献
4.
Many environmental surveys require the implementation of estimation techniques to determine the spatial distribution of the variable being investigated. Traditional methods of interpolation and estimation, for example, inverse distance squared and triangulation often ignore features of the data set such as anisotropy which may have a significant impact on the quality of the estimates produced. Geostatistical techniques may offer an improved method of estimation by modelling the spatial continuity of the variable using semi-variogram analysis. The theoretical model fitted to the semi-variogram is then used in the assignation of weighting factors to the samples surrounding the location to be estimated. This paper outlines the results of a comparison between three common estimation methods, polygonal, triangulation and inverse distance squared and a geostatistical method, in the estimation of soil radionuclide activities. The geostatistical estimation method known as kriging performed best over a range of parameters used to test the performance of the methods. Kriging exhibited the best correlation between actual and estimated values, the narrowest error distribution and the lowest overall estimation error. Polygonal estimation was best at reproducing the data set distribution. Conditional bias was evident in all the methods, low values being over-estimated and high values being under-estimated.  相似文献
5.
The persistence of an island of remnant vegetation within a tailings retention system provided an opportunity to conduct a pilot study to develop hypothesis concerning the impacts of acid spray and radiation on arid zone flora and fauna. Ecological changes were investigated by comparing species abundance and condition on both the study island and remote control areas. Hopbush (Dodonaea viscosa), geckos and a common ant species, Iridomyrmex rufoniger sp. B were abundant in control regions but absent from the study region, whereas densities of colonising plant species, Helea beetles and scorpions were unusually high at the impacted site. These disparities are probably attributable to acid spray at the impacted site and hence are potentially useful bioindicators of these impacts. Dragon and skink populations were apparently unaffected by the polluted ecosystem, although Ctenophorus nuchalis proved to be a significant bioaccumulator of radionuclides. Bioaccumulation of the radionuclides, 238U, 230Th, 210Pb and particularly 210Po were significantly greater than that reported elsewhere in the literature. Further radionuclide monitoring of herbivorous dragon species, possibly concentrating upon 210Po levels, was the suggested outcome of this pilot study.  相似文献
6.
Considerable attention has been devoted to selecting bioindicator species as part of monitoring programs for exposure and effects from contaminants in the environment. Yet the rationale for selection of bioindicators is often literature-based, rather than developed with a firm site-specific base of data on contaminant levels in a diverse range of organisms at different trophic levels in the same ecosystem. We suggest that this latter step is an important phase in the environmental assessment process that is often missing. In this paper we address the problem of how to select a wide range of species representing different trophic levels that serve as a basis for selecting a few species suitable as bioindicators. We illustrate this with our assessment of radionuclides on Amchitka Island, Alaska. We propose a multi-stage process for arriving at the list of available species that includes review of literature, review by experts experienced in the area, review by interested and affected parties, selection of trophic levels or groups for analysis, arraying of possible species, and selection of species within each trophic level group for sample collection. We first had to identify all likely species, then narrow our focus to those we could collect and analyze. In all cases, review includes suggestions for possible target species with justifications. While this method increases the up-front costs of developing bioindicators for an ecosystem, it has the advantage of providing information for selection of species that will be most informative in the long run, including those that are the best bioaccumulators, thus providing the earliest warning of any potential environmental consequences. Further, the recognition that a range of stakeholder's needs and interests should be included increases the utility for public-policy makers, and the potential for continued usage to establish long-term trends.  相似文献
7.
Soil to plant transfer factor (TF) of60Co and 65Zn was determined fromradioisotope experiments on plants grown in pots underoutdoor ambient tropical conditions for three growingseasons (1995–1998). The TFs were obtained fordifferent plants/crops such as, rice, bean, peanutspineapple, cabbage, tomato, spinach and grass. Theaverage TF values of 60Co are found to be 0.087,0.15, 0.12, 0.67, 0.28, 0.79, 1.03 and 0.34respectively for the above mentioned plants/crops. Incase of 65Zn, the average TF values are found tobe 2.24, 1.17, 0.89, 1.09, 0.78, 1.34, 2.92 and 1.78,respectively, for the above mentioned plants/crops. Thedata will be useful to assess the radiation exposureto man associated with the releases of radionuclidesfrom nuclear facilities by means of radiologicalassessment models that require transfer factors asinput parameters to predict the contamination ofradionuclides in foodchain.  相似文献
8.
Many environmental surveys require the implementation of estimation techniques to determine the spatial distribution of the variable being investigated. Traditional methods of interpolation and estimation, for example, inverse distance squared and triangulation often ignore features of the data set such as anisotropy which may have a significant impact on the quality of the estimates produced. Geostatistical techniques may offer an improved method of estimation by modelling the spatial continuity of the variable using semi-variogram analysis. The theoretical model fitted to the semi-variogram is then used in the assignation of weighting factors to the samples surrounding the location to be estimated. This paper outlines the results of a comparison between three common estimation methods, polygonal, triangulation and inverse distance squared and a geostatistical method, in the estimation of soil radionuclide activities. The geostatistical estimation method known as kriging performed best over a range of parameters used to test the performance of the methods. Kriging exhibited the best correlation between actual and estimated values, the narrowest error distribution and the lowest overall estimation error. Polygonal estimation was best at reproducing the data set distribution. Conditional bias was evident in all the methods, low values being over-estimated and high values being under-estimated.  相似文献
9.
The persistence of an island of remnant vegetation within a tailings retention system provided an opportunity to conduct a pilot study to develop hypothesis concerning the impacts of acid spray and radiation on arid zone flora and fauna. Ecological changes were investigated by comparing species abundance and condition on both the study island and remote control areas. Hopbush (Dodonaea viscosa), geckos and a common ant species, Iridomyrmex rufoniger sp. B were abundant in control regions but absent from the study region, whereas densities of colonising plant species, Helea beetles and scorpions were unusually high at the impacted site. These disparities are probably attributable to acid spray at the impacted site and hence are potentially useful bioindicators of these impacts. Dragon and skink populations were apparently unaffected by the polluted ecosystem, although Ctenophorus nuchalis proved to be a significant bioaccumulator of radionuclides. Bioaccumulation of the radionuclides, 238U, 230Th, 210Pb and particularly 210Po were significantly greater than that reported elsewhere in the literature. Further radionuclide monitoring of herbivorous dragon species, possibly concentrating upon 210Po levels, was the suggested outcome of this pilot study.  相似文献
10.
利用IED22000A便携式微机多道能谱仪对成都市区土壤的天然放射性核素进行了直接就地测量,估算出天然环境放射性核素^238U、^232Th、^40K的比活度范围分别为10.37~77.19Bq/kg、17,85~225.74Bq/kg、284.83~892.67Bq/kg;外照射指数范围为0.16—0.8;离地面1m高的空气吸收剂量率均值为83.23nGy/h;1外照射年有效剂量当量为0.34~0.70mSv;等效镭浓度的变化范围是59.06-386.45Bq/kg,均值为164.15Bq/kg。各项指标均在容许范围之内,因而成都市属于外照射水平的安全区域,人居环境不受影响。  相似文献
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