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废水污染物排放总量控制监测技术路线及要求   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
从中国污染物宏观控制目标出发,阐述了中国实施废水污染物排放总量控制监测的技术路线、监测项目以及相关技术要求。对污染物排放总量控制监测分析方法的应用、采样及测流等有关技术问题,提出了见解。以1998年污染源调查统计资料为例,提出了污染物排放总量控制监测方案及有关监测质量的保证措施。  相似文献
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加强监测方案管理 , 提高监测科学性   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
阐述了监测方案的重要性和作用。指出制定监测方案前,首先应选择有资格的项目负责人,识别监测目的,做好现场踏勘工作;制定监测方案时,应合理地确定监测点位与频次、监测项目与方法,完善质量控制计划,实施监督检查;监测方案编制完成,必须经过严格的审核批准,在此基础上实施科学监测。  相似文献
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A metal fractionation study on bed sediments of River Narmada in Central India has been carried out to examine the enrichment and partitioning of different metal species between five geochemical phases (exchangeable fraction, carbonate fraction, Fe/Mn oxide fraction, organic fraction and residual fraction). The river receives toxic substances through a large number of tributaries and drains flowing in the catchment of the river. The toxic substances of particular interest are heavy metals derived from urban runoff as well as municipal sewage and industrial effluents. Heavy metals entering the river get adsorbed onto the suspended sediments, which in due course of time settle down in the bottom of the river. In this study fractionation of metal ions has been carried out with the objective to determine the eco-toxic potential of metal ions. Although, in most cases (except iron) the average trace/heavy metal concentrations in sediments were higher than the standard shale values, the risk assessment code as applied to the present study reveals that only about 1–3% of manganese, <1% of copper, 16–19% of nickel, 4–20% of chromium, 1–4% of lead, 8–13% of cadmium and 1–3% of zinc exist in exchangeable fraction and therefore falls under low to medium risk category. According to the Geo-accumulation Index (GAI), cadmium shows high accumulation in the river sediments, rest of other metals are under unpolluted to moderately polluted class.  相似文献
4.
TSP是唐山市中心区大气污染的首要污染物,根据唐山市大气监测数据,对TSP的污染状况及污染物来源进行了全面的调查和分析,并依据唐山市大气污染控制多年的研究成果,结合国内外污染控制措施经济技术的进展,提出综合治理达标方案。  相似文献
5.
As part of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) PM2.5 (particles collected with an upper 50% cut point of 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter) was measured using an EPA-WINS (Environmetal Protection Agency Well Impactor Ninety-six) sampler. The monitoring schedule was restricted to 7 days per month for one year. Simultaneously, during this one year study period a collocated Harvard Impactor (HI) was run on a daily basis in Erfurt, Germany. Here we validated the reliability of annual, seasonal and monthly means estimated using the ECRHS scheme (measurements taken less than 25% of the whole study period) with the ‘true’ long-term averages, which were estimated using all available daily means.The daily PM2.5 means, obtained by both instruments operated in parallel, were only slightly different (the mean difference between EPA-WINS and HI was 1.8 μg m−3 and 2.8 μg m−3 for the winter means). The values obtained by the two instruments were highly correlated (r = 0.95).In view of that negligible difference, no additional bias was seen with respect to the annual and the winter means estimated by the two different sampling strategies (the difference was 1.7 μg m−3 and 2.7 μg m−3, respectively). Monthly means, however, can only be considered to be a crude estimate that may substantially under- or overestimate the true monthly mean value.  相似文献
6.
Gaussian-based dispersion models are widely used to estimate local pollution levels. The accuracy of such models depends on stability classification schemes as well as plume rise equations. A general plume dispersion model (GPDM) for a point source emission, based on Gaussian plume dispersion equation, was developed. The program complex was developed using Java and Visual basic tools. It has the flexibility of using five kinds of stability classification schemes, i.e., Lapse Rate, Pasquill–Gifford (PG), Turner, σ–θ and Richardson number. It also has the option of using two types of plume rise formulations – Briggs and Holland’s. The model, applicable for both rural and urban roughness conditions, uses meteorological and emission data as its input parameters, and calculates concentrations of pollutant at the center of each cell in a predefined grid area with respect to the given source location. Its performance was tested by comparing with 4-h average field data of continuous releases of SO2 from Dadri thermal power plant (Uttar Pradesh, India). Results showed that the Turner scheme used with Holland’s equation gives the best outcome having a degree of agreement (d) of 0.522.  相似文献
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The eighties were notable for awareness of the need to prevent defects and for orientation towards the client to improve the competitiveness of industrial enterprises. This objective of zero defects has meant for many enterprises a management orientation to zero environmental impact. In this article we analyse the special situation of industrial enterprises in Andalusia (Spain) in the establishment of environmental management systems, proposing a matrix of strategies for their development based on the analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.  相似文献
8.
阐述了《环境应急监测方案》的重要性和作用,探讨了《环境应急监测方案》构成要点和主要内容,指出了编制《环境应急监测方案》过程中应注意的事项.  相似文献
9.
分析了四川省毛河流域各类污染源分布状况及水质现状,采用一维稳态单组分水质模型、多宾斯-坎普稳态模型,引入水文数据、水质监测数据、环境统计数据、社会统计公报数据,以Excel作为数据平台,对毛河水环境进行了动态模拟,反演出主要污染物降解系数。总结了毛河水环境目前存在的问题,并模拟计算了2种污染综合治理方案实施后对毛河水质的影响,确定了毛河流域水污染综合治理的重点以及制约因子。  相似文献
10.
分析了我国火电厂自行监测的现状及存在的问题,包括监测指标不全、监测频次不足、监测点位代表性不够、信息公开不规范等。从监测方案和信息记录2个方面,针对废气、废水、厂界噪声、周边环境质量等的监测点位、监测指标和监测频次,以及监测信息、生产和污染治理设施运行状况、工业固体废物的记录要求,提出了相应的技术建议。  相似文献
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