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1.
The drivers for increasing incineration of sewage sludge and the characteristics of the resulting incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) are reviewed. It is estimated that approximately 1.7 million tonnes of ISSA are produced annually world-wide and is likely to increase in the future. Although most ISSA is currently landfilled, various options have been investigated that allow recycling and beneficial resource recovery. These include the use of ISSA as a substitute for clay in sintered bricks, tiles and pavers, and as a raw material for the manufacture of lightweight aggregate. ISSA has also been used to form high density glass–ceramics. Significant research has investigated the potential use of ISSA in blended cements for use in mortars and concrete, and as a raw material for the production of Portland cement. However, all these applications represent a loss of the valuable phosphate content in ISSA, which is typically comparable to that of a low grade phosphate ore. ISSA has significant potential to be used as a secondary source of phosphate for the production of fertilisers and phosphoric acid. Resource efficient approaches to recycling will increasingly require phosphate recovery from ISSA, with the remaining residual fraction also considered a useful material, and therefore further research is required in this area.  相似文献   
2.
The aim of this study is to characterize different types of source selected organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) in order to optimize the upgrade of a sewage sludge anaerobic digestion unit by codigestion. Various SS-OFMSW samples were collected from canteens, supermarkets, restaurants, households, fruit–vegetable markets and bakery shops. The substrates characterization was carried out getting traditional chemical–physical parameters, performing elemental analysis and measuring fundamental anaerobic digestion macromolecular compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and volatile fatty acids. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted at mesophilic temperature both on single substrates and in codigestion regime with different substrates mixing ratios. The maximum methane yield was observed for restaurant (675 NmlCH4/gVS) and canteens organic wastes (571 and 645 NmlCH4/gVS). The best codigestion BMP test has highlighted an increase of 47% in methane production respect sewage sludge digestion.  相似文献   
3.
随着海外河油田聚合物驱采油技术大面积应用,含聚合物(聚丙烯酰胺)污水大量产出。针对含聚污水黏度大、含油多、乳化稳定,采用传统的污水处理方法及设施难以达到油田注水水质标准的问题,在对海外河油田含聚污水水质分析和微生物处理可行性分析的基础上,进行了微生物处理实验,实验表明:经生化处理的污水满足SY/T 5329-2012《碎屑岩油藏注水水质指标及分析方法》。  相似文献   
4.
文章以风城油田稀油污水处理为例,分析污水处理系统中悬浮物的形成机理,并对污水含油、悬浮物、固体含量、粒径中值、聚合物含量、细菌、温度、硫化物、二价铁、pH值等水质指标进行分析,找出影响污水处理的主要因素,并对油水悬浮物处理方法进行室内分析及现场物理、化学方法实践,解决污水处理系统中悬浮物问题。  相似文献   
5.
含油污泥薄层干燥特性及动力学模型分析   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
采用薄层干燥方式进行含油污泥热干燥的研究,引入薄层干燥模型对含油污泥干燥过程进行模拟,结果表明,Midilli模型比其他模型更适合含油污泥的薄层干燥分析。应用Fick扩散模型,得到80~140℃条件下含油污泥干燥的有效扩散系数变化范围为1.08×10-10~4.22×10-10 m2/s,其值随着温度升高而增大。根据Arrhenius经验公式建立温度与扩散系数的关系,得到含油污泥干燥时水分扩散的活化能为27.26kJ/mol。  相似文献   
6.
Abstract

A closed‐loop anaerobic digestion system consisting of a leachbed (LB) and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was tested as an alternative for the disposal of poultry mortalities. This paper compares the performances of three LB‐UASB treatment systems with different initial moisture contents in the LBs. Each LB was loaded with one chicken and 5, 10 or 18 liters of water. The LBs initially carried out the hydrolysis/acidification phase while the UASBs the methanogenesis phase. Due to repeated inoculation by the UASBs, the LBs with 10 and 18 liters of water started producing methane on day 5, while the one with 5 liters of water on day 19. However, methane production rates were low before day 40 for the LB with 10 liters of water and day 60 for the other LBs. Methane production gradually improved as the LBs continued to receive ungranulated sludge from the UASBs. The LBs eventually became balanced methane reactors. Continued balanced fermentation in the LBs resulted in leachates with very low substrate concentrations that could no longer support high‐rate methanogenesis in the UASBs. Consequently, methane production rates from the UASBs decreased quickly while that from the LBs reached peak levels. Cumulative methane production from each LB eventually exceeded that from its connecting UASB. After 118 days of digestion, 414, 437 and 470 liters of methane were produced from the three systems, respectively. Cumulative methane production from the LBs with 5 and 18 liters of water accounted for 63% of the total methane produced from their respective systems. The LB with 10 liters of water produced 75% of the total methane from that system. Methane yields ranged from 0.485 to 0.554 m3 (Kg TS) 1. About 86% of the initial dry weight was biodegraded. All three systems performed very well with little operational problems. Overall, the system that started with 10 liters of water in the LB performed the best. Strategy for enhancing system performances and implementing farm applications are discussed.  相似文献   
7.
External organic carbon sources are needed to provide electron donors for the denitrification of wastewater with a low COD/NO3--N(C/N) ratio, increasing the treatment cost. The economic strategy is to enhance the bioactivity and/or biodiversity of denitrifiers to efficiently utilize organic substances in wastewater. In this study, novel zero-valent iron(ZVI) composite carriers were prepared and implemented in a suspended carrier biofilm reactor to enhance the bioactivity an...  相似文献   
8.
Respirogram technology has been widely applied for aerobic process, however, the response of respirogram to anoxic denitrification is still unclear. To reveal such response may help to design a new method for the evaluation of the performance of denitrification. The size distribution of flocs measured at different denitrification moments demonstrated a clear expansion of flocs triggered by denitrification, during which higher specific endogenous and quasi-endogenous respiration rates (SOURe and SOURq) were also observed. Furthermore, SOURq increases exponentially with the specific denitrification rate (SDNR), suggesting that there should be a maximum SDNR in conventional activated sludge systems. Based on these findings, an index Rq/t, defined as the ratio of quasi-endogenous (OURq) to maximum respiration rate (OURt), is proposed to estimate the denitrification capacity that higher Rq/t indicates higher denitrification potential, which can be readily obtained without complex measurement or analysis, and it offers a novel and promising respirogram-based approach for denitrification estimation and control by taking measures to extend anoxic time to maintain its value at a high level within a certain range.  相似文献   
9.
Organic matter and nutrients in municipal sewage sludge (SS) and chicken manure (CM) could be recycled and used for land farming to enhance fertility and physical properties of soils. Three soil management practices were used at Kentucky State University Research Farm, Franklin County, to study the impact of soil amendments on kale (Brassica oleracea cv. Winterbar) and collard (Brassica oleracea cv. Top Bunch) yields and quality. The three soil management practices were: (i) SS mixed with native soil at 15 t acre?1, (ii) CM mixed with native soil at 15 t acre?1, and (iii) no-mulch (NM) native soil for comparison purposes. At harvest, collard and kale green plants were graded according to USDA standards. Plants grown in CM and SS amended soil produced the greatest number of U.S. No. 1 grade of collard and kale greens compared to NM native soil. Across all treatments, concentrations of ascorbic acid and phenols were generally greater in kale than in collards. Overall, CM and SS enhanced total phenols and ascorbic acid contents of kale and collard compared to NM native soil. We investigated the chemical and physical properties of each of the three soil treatments that might explain variability among treatments and the impact of soil amendments on yield, phenols, and ascorbic acid contents of kale and collard green grown under this practice.  相似文献   
10.
针对电镀污泥脱水过程中金属离子大量溶出带来的处理难题,以四甲基乙二胺、二硫化碳为主要原料,以氢氧化钾为引发剂,采用聚合法制备了一种脱水稳定剂,并考察了稳定剂投加量、污泥pH值、反应温度和反应时间对电镀污泥离心脱水时重金属溶出的影响。结果表明,在稳定剂投加量(稳定剂与污泥的质量比)为1%、反应温度为20℃、pH=1、反应时间为30 min、转速为3 000 r/min条件下对含Ni(Ⅱ)电镀污泥离心脱水后,Ni(Ⅱ)脱水稳定率达96.88%,且脱水稳定剂对混合电镀污泥中Ni(Ⅱ)、Cu(Ⅱ)的选择性大于Zn(Ⅱ)。脱水稳定剂的脱水稳定机理是其中的二硫代氨基甲酸盐与重金属离子M(Ⅱ)(Ni(Ⅱ)、Cu(Ⅱ)、Zn(Ⅱ)等)形成配位键,从而形成稳定的交联网状结构,达到化学稳定,实现了离心脱水极少重金属离子溶出(即脱水稳定)的效果。所合成的脱水稳定剂可广泛用于含镍、铜、锌等金属离子的电镀污泥脱水处理。  相似文献   
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