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Wastewater sludges are used in agriculture as soil amendment and fertilizer, with regard to their organic matter and nutrient content. However, availability of nitrogen and phosphorus from sludge-amended soils and their transfer in runoff may lead to eutrophication of downstream surface water. The aim of this study is to establish and compare the effect of two different sludges on these transfers: an anaerobically digested and thermically stabilised sludge (Seine-Aval treatment plant, sludge no. 1), and a limed sludge (Saint-Quentin treatment plant, sludge no. 2). Experiments were performed on 12 sloping micro-plots (1 m × 1 m) submitted to sludge spreading and controlled rainfall simulation. Runoff water was sampled and analysed for concentrations in nitrogen species and phosphorus. Results show that spreading of sludge no. 1 increased both ammonium nitrogen (mean of 1.1 mg L–1 N-NH4 vs. 0.2 mg L–1 N-NH4 for control micro-plots) and particulate phosphorus concentrations (mean of 2 mg L–1 P vs. 1.1 mg L–1 P for control micro-plots) in runoff water. On the other hand, sludge no. 2 did not induce any significant effect on nutrient concentrations in runoff. These results are related to chemical composition and physical treatment of sludges. This study underlines the existence of a short-term risk of nutrient mobilisation by runoff after sludge spreading on soil, and the need to check precisely the impact of this practice on water quality.  相似文献
2.
Biosolids from the WWTP of Thessaloniki were examined for the leaching of phosphorus (as ), nitrogen (as and ), and organic matter (as TOC and COD), using two tests: (1) a pH static leaching test and (2) a characterization test, relating contaminant release to the liquid to solid (L/S) ratio. Moreover, a Microtox toxicity test was conducted, to examine the pH dependency of the toxicity of the sludge leachate on the Vibrio fischeri bacterium. Maximum phosphorus release was observed at pH < 3 and at pH > 10. Ammonium nitrogen exhibited maximum leachability at near neutral pH conditions, while nitrate nitrogen exhibited a mild increase in the leachate, as the leachant pH increased from 2 to 12. Both TOC and COD exhibited an increase in the leachate concentration, as the leachant pH was increased from 2 to 12. Ecotoxicological analysis showed that maximum toxicity occurred at very low and very high pH-conditions. As liquid-to-solid ratio increased, the leachate concentration (in mg/l) of all parameters studied decreased. The results of the study were used to conduct a release assessment estimate for the case of Thessaloniki.  相似文献
3.
This study reported the test done on ash-sludge mixture foramendment of soil in pot experiments. Ash-sludge mixture ratiostudies revealed that 1:5 fly ash-sludge mixture and 1:10 bottom ash-sludge mixture were the optimum mixture ratio thatminimized toxic element and provided sufficient nutrients. Experiments indicated that ash-sludge mixtures is more suitablefor amendment of acid soil than neutral soil which can increasesoil pH and reduce available heavy metal toxicity. The maximumheavy metal adsorption occurred in a pH range of 4 to 6 for allsoil studied. The finding also revealed that fly ash applicationseemed more effective than bottom ash, due to its higher loadingrate and metal contents. Heavy metal toxicity was monitored usingseed germination test. Marigold and tomato seeds were the two crops selected for this test. Seed germination test result showsthat percentage of seed germination increased in pot experimentswith sludge only and ash-sludge mixtures. In addition, higherpercentages of seed germination were observed to vary with longer incubation time (1–8 weeks). After week 12 of the incubation period, percentage of seed germination began to decline, as a result of reduced soil pH and release of toxic heavy metals.  相似文献
4.
污水污泥是城市废水处理后的终端产物,既是一种生物质原料,可以被有效地资源化和能源化,同时又含有大量有毒有害物质,如何妥善地处理处置污水污泥,已成为全社会关注的课题。浅析了污水污泥的处理处置方法以及当前的研究热点和新技术。污泥处理处置的发展方向为减量化、稳定化,以及在无害化前提下的资源化、能源化。  相似文献
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建立了快速、简便测定城市污泥中4种主要PAHs污染物(菲、荧蒽、芘、苯并[α]芘)含量的检测方法。利用QuEChERS提取方法,样品经乙腈并以超声波辅助提取,提取液过0.22 μm滤膜后,采用气相色谱-质谱法对4种物质进行测定。对QuEChERS萃取条件及超声时间进行了优化,确立最优试验条件,比较建立的萃取方法与传统索氏提取方法对加标样品中4种PAHs的萃取效率。结果表明,4种PAHs得到较好的分离效果,方法检出限为0.27~0.49 μg/kg,相对标准偏差为2.8%~8.6%(n=7),加标回收率为81.9%~116.3%,对菲、荧蒽、芘、苯并[α]芘提取效率与索氏萃取方法相当。运用该方法对西安某污水处理厂的原污泥和堆肥处理后污泥进行检测,4种分析物均有检出。该方法具有操作简便、灵敏、环保等特点,适用于城市污泥中菲、荧蒽、芘、苯并[α]芘的定性定量分析。  相似文献
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