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1.
A knowledge of the total content of trace metals is not enoughto fully assess the environmental impact of polluted soils. Forthis reason, the determination of metal species in solution isimportant to evaluate their behaviour in the environment andtheir mobilization capacity. Sequential extraction procedure wasused to speciate five heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn) fromfour contaminated soils of Southern Nigeria into sixoperationally defined geochemical species: water soluble,enchangeable, carbonates, Fe-Mn oxide, organic and residual.Metal recoveries were within ± 10% of the independentlydetermined total Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations. The highest amount of Cd (avg. 30%) in the nonresidual fractionswas found in the exchangeable fraction, while Cu and Zn weresignificantly associated with the organic fraction. Thecarbonate fraction contained on average 14, 18.6, 12.6, 13 and11% and the residual fraction contained on average 47, 18, 33,50 and 25% of Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn respectively. Assuming thatmobility and bioavailability of these metals are related to thesolubility of the geochemical form of the metals, and that theydecrease in the order of extraction sequence, the apparentmobility and potential bioavailability for these five metals inthe soil were: Pb > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cd. The mobility indexes ofcopper and nickel correlated positively and significantly withthe total content of metals, while mobility indexes of cadmiumand zinc correlated negatively and significantly with the totalcontent of metals.  相似文献
2.
Competitive Retention of Lead and Cadmium on an Agricultural Soil   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Lead and cadmium contamination of an agricultural soil has been studied using batch and column experiments. Thermodynamics of theretention phenomena may be represented by a Langmuir isotherm foran aqueous metal concentration up to 100 mg L-1. First order kinetics with respect to the solid phase yield good predictabilityfor both batch and column experiments. Kinetics and thermodynamics of lead retention predominate over those ofcadmium. As a consequence, lead is preferentially retainedand can even displace sorbed cadmium. In the event of anspill involving both metals, cadmium would move further inthe soil and its aqueous concentration downstream could beeven higher than that of the influent solution, increasingpotential risks. A two-region model has been used to fit all the experimental results. Satisfactory predictions for column experiments are obtained with parameters which are consistent with those obtained for the batch experiments, for which sorption is described by a Langmuir isotherm including competitive retention.  相似文献
3.
Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the top-(0–10 cm) and sub-surface (10–20 cm) soils of the Talcahuano urban area were measured. The main soil properties (organic matter, CaCO3, pH, particle sizes) were determined for a network of representative sampling sites. The mean Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn contents in the urban topsoil samples from Talcahuano (37.8, 22.6, 35.2, 333 mg kg−1, respectively) were compared with mean concentrations for other cities around the world. The results revealed higher concentrations of heavy metals in topsoil samples than in sub-surface samples. The samples from IS1, IS2, and IS3, located in the Talcahuano industrial park, had higher Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn contents than did samples from the other sites. This was probably due to local pollution by industrial (metallurgical) dust, although other diffuse pollution throughout the entire port region (shipyards, metallurgy, the dismantling of old ships), and contributions from the wind from adjacent industrial, storage, and vessel areas clearly played a role. Heavy metals were lowest in the sample taken on school grounds (SG).  相似文献
4.
Changes in Soil Properties of Abandoned Shrimp Ponds in Southern Thailand   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Chemical soil properties between active shrimp ponds andabandoned ones on the Bangkok soil series were compared,at Ranote District, Songkhla Province in southern Thailand.Soil samples were collected at depth intervals of 0–10, 10–20, 20–30, 30–40 and 40–50 cm from pond bottoms at the same ponds used in a former study conducted in 1994, fora total of 6 ponds with 3 sampling sites for each pond. Theseponds were active during the previous study in 1994, abandonedin 1996 and investigated by this study in 1999. All the samples were analyzed for exchangeable Ca, Mg, K and Na electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter, S, P and pH, and statistically compared with the analytical results of theprevious study. An increase in amounts of Ca, Mg, K, Na and EC in the abandoned ponds as compared with the active ones by1.3–3.4, 1.4–2.1, 7.0–30.0, 1.2–6.3 and 1.3–10.9 timesrespectively was observed. That more of these elements weregained than lost each time the seawater was introduced intothe ponds, is explained by the Element Input/Output Consideration as proposed herein. Furthermore, a decreasein organic matter, S and P was also observed in the abandonedpond soils, and attributed to the absence of shrimp food and shrimp excreta following the cessation of shrimp raising activities. An unexpected decline in the soil pH of the abandoned ponds was found as well. Aerobic decomposition of organic matter during the absence of shrimp raising activitiescaused by soil microorganisms triggering SO2 and H2SO4 formation probably played a more significantrole than the increase in the amounts of the basic elements (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) eventually reducing soil pH in the abandoned ponds. The significant depletion of the amounts of organic matter in the abandoned pond soils also supports this observation.  相似文献
5.
综述了植物修复的相关机制及其进展和发展方向.随着一些功能基因的鉴定和分离,利用转基因技术提高植物对重金属的积累能力已取得了一些进展,开拓了植物修复的新领域.  相似文献
6.
Accurate knowledge of the quality and environmental impact of the highway runoff in Pear River Delta, South China is required to assess this important non-point pollution source. This paper presents the quality characterization and environmental impact assessment of rainfall runoff from highways in urban and rural area of Guangzhou, the largest city of Pear River Delta over 1 year’s investigation. Multiple regression and Pearson correlation analysis were used to determine influence of the rainfall characteristics on water quality and correlations among the constituents in highway runoff. The results and analysis indicates that the runoff water is nearly neutral with low biodegradability. Oil and grease (O&G), suspended solids (SS) and heavy metals are the dominant pollutants in contrast to the low level of nutrient constituents in runoff. Quality of highway runoff at rural site is better than that of at urban site for most constituents. Depth and antecedent dry period are the main rainfall factors influencing quality of highway runoff. The correlation patterns among constituents in highway runoff at urban site are consistent with their dominant phases in water. Strong correlations (r ≥ 0.80) are found among chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus, Cu and Zn as well as conductivity, nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen. O&G, COD, SS and Pb in highway runoff at urban site substantially exceed their concentrations in receiving water of Pear River. The soil directly discharged by highway runoff at rural site has contaminated seriously by heavy metals in surface layer accompanying with pH conversion from original acidic to alkaline at present.  相似文献
7.
The pollution of soil is a source of danger to the health of people, even to those living in cities. The anthropogenic pollution caused by heavy industries enters plants then goes through the food chain and ultimately endangers human health. In the context, the knowledge of the regional variability, the background values and anthropogenic vs. natural origin of potentially harmful elements in soils is of critical importance to assess human impact. The present study was undertaken on soil contamination in Surat, Gujarat (India). The aims of the study were: i) to determine extent and distribution of heavy metals (Ba, Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, Sr, V and Zn) ii) to find out the large scale variability, iii) to delineate the source as geogenic or anthropogenic based on the distribution maps and correlation of metals in soils. Soil samples were collected from the industrial area of Surat from top 10 cm layer of the soil. These samples were analysed for heavy metals by using Philips PW 2440 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The data reveal that soils in the area are significantly contaminated, showing higher levels of toxic elements than normal distribution. The heavy metal loads of the soils in the study area are 471.7 mg/kg for Ba, 137.5 mg/kg for Cu, 305.2 mg/kg for Cr, 51.3 mg/kg for Co, 79.0 mg/kg for Ni, 317.9 mg/kg for Sr, 380.6 mg/kg for V and 139.0 mg/kg for Zn. The higher concentrations of these toxic metals in soils need to be monitored regularly for heavy metal enrichment.  相似文献
8.
Mercury contamination in the environment is problematic due to the unusual physical properties and well-recognized toxicity of this common metal. The bioavailability of mercury depends strongly on its chemical speciation. Anthropogenic mercury and its compounds appear in soil as hot spots located close to industrial facilities that used or produced mercury. The nature of the chemical production process, transportation and disposal practices often determined the chemical composition and distribution of mercury in the surrounding soils. Current ex situ soil remediation methods are expensive, produce undesirable side effects to the environment and usually involve transportation of contaminated soil.In this project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, a low-cost, simple approach to removing mercury from soil was evaluated. The process uses low-temperature thermal desorption of volatile metallic mercury and its compounds, and subsequent vapor capture.The project consisted of laboratory and plot-scale experiments. The laboratory efforts evaluated theoretical calculations of mercury removal as a function of time and temperature. The plot-scale experiment was a practical application of the laboratory results. For both experiments, mercury-polluted soil was obtained from a chemical production facility located in southern Poland. In laboratory experiments, at temperature 373 K total mercury concentration decreased in soil by nearly 32%. In plot-scale experiments, at temperature 440 K, about 60–70% of total mercury was removed from the soil.At the end of the experiment, a test of soil biological activity was performed to check if the high temperature applied to the soil did not impair the soil growth properties. There was no negative effect of temperature found.  相似文献
9.
In the environment of a lead smeltery contamination with lead, zinc and cadmium was measured over a 15-year period. Efficient bag filters were installed in order to remove dust from the flue gases. This measure of improvement resulted in a drastic reduction of lead, zinc and cadmium content in suspended particles (by 92, 94 and 89%), to a lesser extent in depositions (by 79, 75 and 68%), whereas in household dust the reduction was considerably lower (by 53, 55 and 70%). It can be assumed that household dust contains also redispersed soil particles on which the dust from the smeltery flue gases has deposited over years. To determine to what extent contaminated soil continues to cause increased population exposure directly or through plants or pastures, in the period 1981–1985 the content of metallic ions in the soil was measured at three depths. Selective solubility of soil metallic compounds was analysed in water, in 1 mol ammoniumacetate solution and in 0.05 mol ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) solution in relation to their solubility in suspended particles, depositions and household dust. A considerably low portion of soluble metallic compounds was found in the soil and physico-chemical characteristics of the soil and portion of metallic ions bound to fulvice and humic acids were determined. The behaviour of metallic ions in contact with soil samples was studied in laboratory and it was found that approximately 50% of lead, 70% of zinc and 7% of cadmium ions change into non-soluble or poorly soluble compounds. By qualitative phase analysis in the non-soluble fraction PbO2, Pb3P4O13, Zn(OH)2, ZnO, Fe2O3 and Cd(OH)2 were identified.  相似文献
10.
An investigation was conducted to study the baseline levels of Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn (aqua regia-extractable) based on 51 representative soils of the Torrelles and Sant Climent Municipal Districts (Catalonia, Spain). The baseline concentrations of those elements were (mg kg−1): Ba 73.9–617.9, Cr 9.2–120.2, Cu 4.0–111.6, Ni 6.1–118.6, Pb 5.6–217.5, Sr 19.6–128.8, V 12.1–101.2, and Zn 16.8–326.8, respectively.Forty-nine samples were reported as having less than the 0.67 mg kg−1 detection limit for cadmiun and were therefore not useful for baseline determination; however, these results suggest that the baseline average is probably below 0.67 mg kg−1.Upper baseline values for most of the elements corresponded with those reported in the literature, except for Pb and Zn, which were two to four times greater.Soil properties, including clay fraction, OC, CEC and pHw were related to metal concentration using correlation and factorial analysis. R-mode factor analysis separates the soil analysis data into three factors. These factors explain 67.3% of the total variance, suggesting that metal concentration was controlled by soil composition.  相似文献
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