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1.
持久性有机污染物(待续)   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
持久性有机污染物的环境化学和生态毒理学是目前环境研究最活跃的领域之一。本文综述了持久性有机污染物的成分特性、对生物群的毒理效应、环境污染源、环境分析、环境行为、食物链传播、地区性或全球性的污染传输等问题。同时提出了对目前和将来持久性有机污染物研究的一些浅见。  相似文献
2.
The importance of improving the effectiveness of Plan EIA and SEA-type evaluations in China cannot be overstated: at a time when the country's economy is being boosted by a stimulus package worth over RMB 400 trillion – largely for infrastructure – the pressure on China's already strained environment and resource base is bound to increase. The aim is to propose the criteria for plan EIA's effectiveness to raise the awareness of the need to strengthen the performance of the assessment and maximize its potential benefits. The authors first review critically the discourse on the effectiveness of the impact assessment, identifying three dimensions: substantive, procedural and incremental. The resulting conceptual framework allows them to interpret the weaknesses of the Chinese discourse on the effectiveness and of the practice of the Plan EIA to date. The result is the identification of a clear gap, both in terms of the breadth of the concept, and in terms of the quality of the existing criteria, which tend to be very generic to the point of inapplicability. The analysis also reveals a need for transitioning from formal models of the Plan EIA to more strategic approaches, in a gradual manner that is consistent with context-specificities. The proposal of a set of preliminary criteria for effectiveness is therefore structured on three levels. This framework is meant to input into the ongoing debate on how to improve the practice of PEIA and the SEA-type evaluations in China, and provide ideas for a government strategy aimed at maximizing the positive impact of PEIAs on planning, as well as on the context of application.  相似文献
3.
The Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Meteorological Model 5 (MM5), Sparse Matrix Operator Kernal Emissions (SMOKE), and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling systems were employed to simulate ozone concentration distribution within the State of Arizona, in particular, Phoenix air basin, as supporting information to designate nonattainment areas of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's new 8-h ozone standard. In general, based on statistical comparisons between predictions and available (sparsely distributed) observations, the modeling system performed reasonably well for the Phoenix basin, thus proving it to be a useful tool for both regulatory as well as research applications. Detailed inspection, however, revealed a serious problem with respect to the details of the ozone distribution in that for some days the transition from downslope flow to upslope flow in the Phoenix basin was delayed in the model, causing the ozone distribution to show an unrealistic high-ozone bias toward the west valley. Implementation of a modified subgrid parameterization improved the time of transition, and hence the prediction of ozone and its precursor distributions. This study points to possible inadequacies of commonly used subgrid parameterizations in dealing with rapidly changing flow conditions such as morning (and evening) transitions.  相似文献
4.
平顶山市湛河水水质预报模型研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
运用随机理论--马尔科夫过程预报平顶山市湛河水质,并通过平顶山市湛河近十年的水质监测数据验证了模型的可靠性,对2000年前后湛河水质进行预报,为使2000年淮河流域水质变清,给平顶山市的管理层提供了一定的理论依据。  相似文献
5.
环境监测转型发展现状分析   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
文章从监测网络体系、监测技术研究创新体系、监测仪器装备以及人才体系等四个方面,总结了环境监测站转型发展以来技术支撑能力建设取得的阶段性成果。并提出今后应进一步加强实验室建设和监测技术研究,围绕大气、水、土壤环境污染防治等重点工作提供技术支撑。  相似文献
6.
Air pollution is threat to the lives of people living in big cities of Pakistan. In Lahore 1,250 people die annually because of air pollution.Mass transit system that can be put forth as solution to urban air pollution is contingent with right choice of system and its affiliation with motorized vehicles and nature of urban air pollution.Existing mass transit system in Lahore due to untrue operation causes surfeit discharge of motor vehicular carbon monoxide. Tended relationships of mass transit system with motorized vehicles and urban air pollution are quite noteworthy. The growing motor vehicles (a consequence of flawed public mass transit system) are potential source of urban air pollution. This paper attempts to highlight correlations and regression curves of existing mass transit system. Further it recommends a two facet approach for reduction of motor vehicular air pollution in Lahore.  相似文献
7.
Many metropolitan transit authorities are considering upgrading transit bus fleets to decrease ambient criteria pollutant levels. Advancements in engine and fuel technology have lead to a generation of lower-emission buses in a variety of fuel types. Dynamometer tests show substantial reductions in particulate mass emissions for younger buses (<10 years) over older models, but particle number reduction has not been verified in the research. Recent studies suggest that particle number is a more important factor than particle mass in determining health effects. In-vehicle particle number concentration measurements on conventional diesel, oxidation-catalyst diesel and compressed natural gas transit buses are compared to estimate relative in-vehicle particulate exposures. Two primary consistencies are observed from the data: the CNG buses have average particle count concentrations near the average concentrations for the oxidation-catalyst diesel buses, and the conventional diesel buses have average particle count concentrations approximately three to four times greater than the CNG buses. Particle number concentrations are also noticeably affected by bus idling behavior and ventilation options, such as, window position and air conditioning.  相似文献
8.
Impact of urban air pollution has variety of focuses such as urban ecology, human health, economy, etc. But human health is always given priority. Air pollution is threat to the lives of people living in big cities of Pakistan. In Lahore only there die 1,250 people annually because of air pollution. A strong correlation exists between urban air pollution and human health in Lahore. Growth of COPD is highest among other air pollution borne diseases. Existing mass transit system (one of driving forces behind motor vehicular emission) in Lahore due to frequent stoppages, entering and exit in flow of traffic causes excess discharge of motor vehicular carbon monoxide (CO) which is a hazardous to human health. Quantification and enumeration of this discharge is essential for environmental management. The paper is an attempt to highlight human health effects of urban air pollution through correlation and regression analysis. Further it is focused upon quantifying excess motor vehicular carbon monoxide through application of simplified mobile emission model. In light of results emission control measures are recommended.  相似文献
9.
10.
通过研究地下轨道交通现行国家标准与地方标准监测方法与评价量,探讨标准中存在的不足之处。并通过对受地下轨道交通运行过程影响的建筑物进行室内噪声与振动实地测试和数据分析,大胆提出了监测地下轨道交通排放的新思路。即采用1/3倍频程时间历程方法对列车通过全过程产生的结构传声排放与振动排放全时记录,借鉴声暴露级的方法,通过实测各频率数值变化截取列车通过时噪声事件的振动分频振级与结构传声1/3倍频程声压级。对此种方法的数据结果进行各频率噪声与振动相关性分析,得出地下轨道交通运行所产生结构传声污染排放的低频排放特性。通过研究和测量发现,轨道交通所引起的室内结构传声与振动污染能量主要集中于500 Hz 以下低频部分,其峰值出现于40~60 Hz 附近。将其与现行国家或地方标准进行比较,提出了采用特征频率作为事件判别的依据,并将各事件的最终测量结果以低频分频数据进行评价的方式,最终归纳总结了实际地下轨道交通排放频率特性并展望其测量方法。  相似文献
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