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1.
OSPM - A Parameterised Street Pollution Model   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
For many practical applications, as e.g. in support of air pollution management, numerical models based on solution of the basic flow and dispersion equations are still too complex. Alternative are models that are basically parameterised semi-empirical models making use of a priori assumptions about the flow and dispersion conditions. However, these models must, be thoroughly tested and their performance and limitations carefully documented. The Danish Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) belongs to this category of parameterised models. In the OSPM, concentrations of exhaust gases are calculated using a combination of a plume model for the direct contribution and a box model for the recirculating part of the pollutants in the street. Parameterisation of flow and dispersion conditions in street canyons was deduced from extensive analysis of experimental data and model tests. Results of these tests were used to further improve the model performance, especially with regard to different street configurations and a variety of meteorological conditions.  相似文献
2.
道路交通噪声自动监测应用探讨   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
结合城市道路路网状况及实际噪声监测数据和历史实验数据,对道路交通噪声自动监测数据的有效性、监测点位布设进行了研究,对道路交通噪声监测点位优化提出建议。  相似文献
3.
This research explores the boundaries of a valid application of contingent valuation as a method to value environmental changes. Recent criticism from social psychologists refers to unrealistic cognitive demands upon respondents. Criticism from economists point to the problem of measuring preferences in relation to non-use values. In this research the hypothesis is tested that the CV method in valuing goods with non-use value and with a complex content of information produces less valid results than with use values and non-complex content of information. Validity is tested across goods (sample survey: N=832). Results show that scope validity is ambiguous for goods with high content of complexity. Construct validity is not guaranteed for environmental changes with non-use values: Economic factors are not significant, only attitudes are relevant. Given the importance of WTP figures in cost-benefit analysis these results are of paramount importance for the trust in contingent valuation.  相似文献
4.
Validation of Urban Emission Inventories   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Two emission validation methods are presented. The first method focuses on the precision of the emission factors and the accuracy of modelled traffic flows. Emission factors derived from the COPERT II methodology are compared with on-board emission measurements and modelled traffic flow rates are compared with observations. The second validation method focuses on the completeness of the inventory, i.e. coverage of all sources. The method compares measured pollutant fluxes in the urban plume with the downwind transported and dispersed emissions integrated over plume width and mixing height. Both methods seem to indicate that traffic emission factors used in the urban emission inventories show large uncertainties. Besides the lack of measurement precision this is mainly induced by external influence factors like driving behaviour and vehicle maintenance.  相似文献
5.
污染源现场监测真实性和法律有效性控制的几点做法   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
污染源现场监测中的客观真实性和法律有效性是环境监测质量保证的重要内容,但在监测实践中还没有对此引起足够的重视,缺少有效的控制措施。文章在多年监测实践的基础上,总结归纳出一些控制措施和方法,实践证明,简单易行、科学有效。  相似文献
6.
国内环境遥感监测指标验证方法研究进展   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
随着经济的快速发展,我国环境问题日益突出,环境治理已刻不容缓。卫星遥感技术的发展,为环境监测提供了有力的技术手段,并在环境监测领域发挥越来越重要的作用,在生态环境、水环境、大气环境等三个环境领域建立了环境遥感监测指标。然而,环境遥感监测指标验证工作相对较少,缺少规范化与标准化,未形成健全的验证体系。综述了目前国内具有代表性的环境监测指标验证方法,总结了验证中存在的问题,就其今后的发展方向,进行了有益的探讨。  相似文献
7.
堰槽式明渠废水流量监测数据有效性判别技术研究   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
针对缺少堰槽明渠废水流量监测数据有效性判别技术的现状,研究了计量检定期间对废水流量计的监督检查技术,设计了现场计量检定项目、流量计运行维护情况、生产工况的变化3个方面检查内容、8项检查指标,并分别提出了检查方法及检查结果的判定与处理,填补了中国废水流量自动数据有效性认定的技术空白,完善了废水流量监测的质控体系。开展的试点工作表明,该文提出废水流量计监督检查技术具有较好的实用性。  相似文献
8.
污染源自动监测数据有效性影响因素分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
结合我国污染源自动监测现状,分别从技术、产品、建设、管理与环境等各不同角度,分析了各因素对监测数据有效性的影响,并提出了一些相应的建议与对策。  相似文献
9.
Hydrological processes and crop growth were simulated for the state of Brandenburg (Germany) using the hydrological/vegetation/water quality model SWIM, which can be applied for mesoscale river basins or regions. Hydrological validation was carried out for three mesoscale river basins in the area. The crop growth module was validated regionally for winter wheat, winter barley and maize. After that the analysis of climate change impacts on hydrology and crop growth was performed, using a transient 1.5 K scenario of climate change for Brandenburg and restricting the crop spectrum to the three above mentioned crops. According to the scenario, precipitation is expected to increase. The impact study was done comparing simulation results for two scenario periods 2022–2030 and 2042–2050 with those for a reference period 1981–1992. The atmospheric CO2 concentrations for the reference period and two scenario periods were set to 346, 406 and 436 ppm, respectively. Two different methods – an empirical one and a semi-mechanistic one – were used for adjustment of net photosynthesis to altered CO2. With warming, the model simulates an increase of evapotranspiration (+9.5%, +15.4%) and runoff (+7.0%, +17.2%). The crop yield was only slightly altered under the climate change only scenario (no CO2 fertilization effect) for barley and maize, and it was reduced for wheat (–6.2%, –10.3%). The impact of higher atmospheric CO2 compensated for climate-related wheat yield losses, and resulted in an increased yield both for barley and maize compared to the reference scenario. The simulated combined effect of climate change and elevated CO2 on crop yield was about 7% higher for the C3 crops when the CO2 and temperature interaction was ignored. The assumption that stomatal control of transpiration is taking place at the regional scale led to further increase in crop yield, which was larger for maize than for wheat and barley. The regional water balance was practically not affected by the partial stimulation of net photosynthesis due to higher CO2, while the introduction of stomatal control of regional transpiration reduced evapotranspiration and enlarged notably runoff and ground water recharge.  相似文献
10.
The city of Mumbai, India with a population of 15 million discharges about 2225 MLD of domestic wastewater after partial treatment to adjoining marine water body. Under the Mumbai Sewage Disposal Project Scheme, sewage is being disposed to the west coast at Worli and Bandra through 3.4 kms long submarine outfalls. A field study was conducted at recently commissioned outfall diffuser location at Worli, at the onset of neap flood tide to study the dispersion patterns and measure the far field dilutions using radio and dye tracers. Estimated dilutions using different tracers were compared with outputs from an empirical model (Brooks) and a 2D numerical model (DIVAST). Validation using parameters such as BOD and FC, indicated a good match for BOD in near field compared to FC. The radiotracer 82Br and Rhodamine WT generally gave good correlation with Brooks' and DIVAST models for nearfield, however at further distances predictions were not accurate.  相似文献
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